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Table 2 Results of multi-level models of school proximity to major roadways

From: Proximity of public elementary schools to major roads in Canadian urban areas

Model Outcome Variable Level Variable Contrasta Effect Estimate (95% CI)b
School within 75 m of a highway or major road (binary) City (Census Subdivision)   
     Dwelling Density 1000 dwellings/km2 1.26 (0.71, 2.24)
  Neighborhood (Census Tract)   
     Dwelling Density 1000 dwellings/km2 1.07 (1.00, 1.16)
     Median Household Income $20,000 0.81 (0.65, 1.00)
     % of Population Without HS Diploma 5% 0.95 (0.77, 1.18)
School within 200 m of a highway or major road (binary) City (Census Subdivision)   
     Dwelling Density 1000 dwellings/km2 1.34 (0.75, 2.38)
  Neighborhood (Census Tract)   
     Dwelling Density 1000 dwellings/km2 1.19 (1.09, 1.29)
     Median Household Income $20,000 0.74 (0.63, 0.89)
     % of Population Without HS Diploma 5% 1.08 (0.91, 1.28)
Distance from school to the nearest highway or major road (m, continuous) City (Census Subdivision)   
     Dwelling Density 1000 dwellings/km2 -51.6 (-102, -1.3)
  Neighborhood (Census Tract)   
     Dwelling Density 1000 dwellings/km2 -10.3 (-17.0, -3.6)
     Median Household Income $20,000 47.1 (32.8, 61.3)
     % of Population Without HS Diploma 5% 4.7 (-11.8, 21.2)
  1. aContrasts roughly correspond to interquartile ranges (see Table 1) to allow for comparisons of effect sizes across variables.
  2. bFor the binary outcome models the effect estimates are the odds ratios per variable contrast. For the continuous model the effect estimates are the changes in average school distance to the nearest highway or major road (in meters) per variable contrast.