General steps in an MCDA process adapted to risk assessment, selection of alternatives and site selection. The steps in a general MCDA and spatial MCDA are similar. First, the objective of the analysis is defined (step1). Next, the key stakeholders that should be involved in the analysis process are identified (step 2). The following steps involve defining all possible alternatives under consideration (step 3) and all of the relevant criteria for evaluating these alternatives (step 4). These steps are interchangeable and may lead to an iterative process of refining which stakeholders to involve. Next, the alternatives are assessed based on the identified criteria (step 5). Performance indicators or decision variables are created for each intersecting pair of alternative and criteria. For spatial MCDA, evaluation criterion maps are generated to evaluate the performance of alternatives. Constraint maps can also be generated to display the limitations of the values that decision variables may assume. Following this, all criteria are weighted by participating stakeholders in order to reflect the preference values of those involved (step 6). It should be noted that not all MCDA approaches make use of weighting; other ordering techniques such as pair-wise comparison can be used. Next, a mathematical combination of the criteria is performed using a decision rule and effectively combines the results of the preceding four steps (step 7). The combined criteria produce an ordering of alternatives. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is performed to examine the robustness of the ranking outcome (step 8). The end result of the MCDA process is a recommendation consisting either of the best-ranked alternative or group of alternatives.