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Table 1 Individual level characteristics of cases with type 1 diabetes and controls, SEARCH CC Study (n = 709)

From: Neighborhood level risk factors for type 1 diabetes in youth: the SEARCH case-control study

Individual
Characteristics
Colorado and South Carolina Combined Colorado South Carolina
  Cases
(n = 505)
Controls
(n = 204)
p-value Cases
(n = 411)
Controls
(n = 124)
p-value Cases
(n = 94)
Controls
(n = 80)
p-value
Age at visit, mean (SD) 14.8 (3.5) 14.6 (2.9) 0.3086 15.0 (3.4) 14.5 (2.9) 0.0633 14.0 (3.7) 14.7 (2.9) 0.1170
People in house, mean (SD) 4.1 (1.3) 4.1 (1.3) 0.9763 4.1 (1.2) 4.2 (1.2) 0.4112 4.4 (1.7) 4.0 (1.3) 0.1592
Maternal age, mean (SD) 28.7 (5.5) 27.9 (5.8) 0.1108 28.9 (5.5) 28.2 (6.0) 0.2969 27.9 (5.5) 27.4 (5.5) 0.5536
Age fed other than breast milk (days), mean (SD) 80.7 (83.5) 72.1 (78.6) 0.2327 83.7 (79.2) 97.5 (80.1) 0.1155 67.1 (100.8) 31.3 (56.0) 0.0106
Age introduced solid food (days), mean (SD) 169.5 (93.1) 185.7 (147.9) 0.1715 163.2 (81.2) 199.1 (175.3) 0.0385 197.2 (130.3) 165.0 (87.6) 0.0786
Birth weight (ounces), mean (SD) 119.0 (20.8) 115.8 (21.9) 0.0872 118.7 (20.3) 117.3 (21.8) 0.5305 120.4 (23.0) 113.5 (22.1) 0.0596
Siblings, mean (SD) 2.0 (1.3) 2.3 (1.5) 0.0050 1.9 (1.1) 2.2 (1.2) 0.0303 2.4 (1.9) 2.6 (1.8) 0.5502
Birth order, mean (SD) 1.9 (1.0) 1.9 (0.9) 0.7875 1.8 (1.0) 1.8 (0.9) 0.9306 2.0 (1.1) 1.9 (0.9) 0.7885
Race/ethnicity, n (%)          
   African American/Hispanic 101 (20.0) 91 (44.6) < 0.0001 64 (15.6) 41 (33.1) < 0.0001 37 (39.4) 50 (62.5) 0.0023
   Non-Hispanic White 404 (80.0) 113 (55.4)   347 (84.4) 83 (67.0)   57 (60.6) 30 (37.5)  
Gender, n (%)          
   Female 250 (49.5) 124 (60.8) 0.0065 199 (48.4) 75 (60.5) 0.0185 51 (54.3) 49 (61.3) 0.3523
   Male 255 (50.5) 80 (39.2)   212 (51.6) 49 (39.5)   43 (45.7) 31 (38.7)  
Education*, n (%)          
   High school or less 75 (14.9) 54 (26.7) 0.0002 50 (12.2) 21 (17.1) 0.6656 25 (26.6) 33 (41.8) 0.0352
   More than high school 428 (85.1) 148 (73.3)   359 (87.9) 102 (82.9)   69 (73.4) 46 (58.2)  
Income*, mean (SD)          
   < $ 24,999 59 (13.0) 47 (25.3) < 0.0001 31 (7.3) 14 (11.5) 0.1016 28 (31.0) 33 (41.2) 0.2969
   $ 25,000-74,999 180 (39.6) 84 (45.2)   147 (42.8) 49 (50.8)   33 (51.0) 35 (47.5)  
   > $ 75,000 215 (47.4) 55 (29.6)   199 (49.9) 46 (37.7)   16(18.0) 9 (11.2)  
  1. *parental attribute