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Table 2 Neighborhood level characteristics of cases with type 1 diabetes and controls, SEARCH CC Study (n = 709)

From: Neighborhood level risk factors for type 1 diabetes in youth: the SEARCH case-control study

Census-tract
Characteristics
Colorado and South Carolina Combined Colorado South Carolina
  Cases
(n = 505)
Controls (n = 204) p-value Cases
(n = 411)
Controls (n = 124) p-value Cases (n = 94) Controls (n = 80) p-value
Unemployment (%) 2.5 (1.8) 3.2 (2.2) 0.0003 2.3 (1.8) 2.6 (1.7) 0.1357 3.4 (1.8) 4.0 (2.5) 0.0542
Population below poverty (%) 6.9 (7.4) 11.1 (10.4) < 0.0001 5.3 (6.0) 7.4 (6.8) 0.0023 13.6 (9.3) 16.8 (12.2) 0.0599
Household crowding (%) 3.4 (4.6) 4.6 (5.0) 0.0040 3.5 (5.0) 4.9 (6.1) 0.0221 3.2 (2.2) 4.2 (2.7) 0.0105
Social security recipient (%) 17.5 (10.1) 22.0 (9.4) < 0.0001 16.2 (10.0) 19.1 (9.3) 0.0031 23.4 (8.8) 26.5 (7.9) 0.0166
Minority population (%) 23.7 (19.7) 36.5 (27.9) < 0.0001 20.6 (17.6) 28.1 (22.3) 0.0008 37.3 (22.6) 49.5 (30.7) 0.0037
Homeowners (%) 76.5 (19.6) 71.1 (20.0) 0.0010 77.8 (19.2) 72.4 (21.2) 0.0112 70.7 (20.5) 69.0 (18.0) 0.5523
Median housing value ($) 184K (96K) 144K (74K) < 0.0001 206K (93K) 183K (67K) 0.0028 88K (32K) 84K (31K) 0.3877
Working outside county (%) 45.0 (19.0) 38.2 (18.9) < 0.0001 48.7 (16.9) 48.6 (10.1) 0.9354 29.0 (19.9) 22.2 (18.2) 0.0196
Income from interest and others (%) 43.3 (16.3) 35.2 (17.2) < 0.0001 47.2 (14.7) 42.4 (15.7) 0.0030 26.4 (11.2) 24.0 (13.0) 0.1894
Management position (%) 40.5 (14.3) 33.9 (14.0) < 0.0001 42.8 (13.9) 37.8 (14.3) 0.0007 30.1 (10.7) 27.8 (11.2) 0.1722
High school education and above (%) 88.9 (11.4) 82.7 (13.6) < 0.0001 90.8 (10.7) 85.9 (13.6) 0.0003 80.4 (10.8) 77.7 (12.0) 0.1201
Median household income ($) 61K (26K) 49K (20K) < 0.0001 66K (25K) 57K (19K) < 0.0001 39K (12K) 36K (12K) 0.0725
Vehicle ownership (%) 95.3 (5.6) 92.1 (8.9) < 0.0001 96.1 (4.6) 94.3 (5.8) 0.0017 91.9 (8.0) 88.6 (11.5) 0.0360
Neighborhood socioeconomic advantage score 0.5 (0.9) 0.04 (0.9) < 0.0001 0.8 (0.8) 0.5(0.8) 0.0016 -0.5 (0.6) -0.7 (0.6) 0.1327
Urban category n (%)          
   Small town 6 (1.2) 3 (1.5) 0.0141 2 0 0.7791 4 (4.0) 3 (3.7) 0.0285
   Large town 15 (3.0) 16 (7.8)   1 0   14 (16.0) 16 (20.0)  
   Suburban 59 (11.7) 15 (7.4)   38 (8.6) 10 (6.6)   21 (23.0) 5 (6.2)  
   Urban core 425 (84.2) 170 (83.3)   370 (91.4) 114 (93.4)   55 (57.0) 56 (70.0)