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Table 3 Associations of neighborhood characteristics with odds of type 1 diabetes in combined Colorado and South Carolina sample

From: Neighborhood level risk factors for type 1 diabetes in youth: the SEARCH case-control study

  Colorado and South Carolina
  Unadjusted Adjustment 1 Adjustment 2 Adjustment 3
Neighborhood characteristics OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Unemployment (+5%) 0.44 (0.28,0.68) 0.69 (0.45, 1.06) 0.71 (0.46, 1.10) 0.83 (0.52,1.32)
Population below poverty (+5%) 0.76 (0.69,0.84) 0.84 (0.76,0.93) 0.86 (0.76,0.96) 0.88 (0.78,0.99)
Household crowding (+5%) 0.79 (0.67,0.92) 0.96 (0.80,1.14) 0.83 (0.69,1.00) 0.91 (0.75,1.11)
Social security recipient (+5%) 0.81 (0.74,0.88) 0.83 (0.76,0.90) 0.87 (0.79,0.95) 0.85 (0.77,0.93)
Minority population (+5%) 0.89 (0.86,0.92) 0.93 (0.89,0.97) 0.93 (0.89,0.97) 0.94 (0.90,0.99)
Homeowners (+5%) 1.07 (1.03,1.11) 1.04 (1.00,1.08) 1.04 (1.00,1.09) 1.03 (0.98,1.07)
Median housing value (+ $10,000) 1.07 (1.04,1.09) 1.04 (1.02,1.07) 1.02 (0.99,1.06) 1.02 (0.99,1.05)
Working outside county (+5%) 1.10 (1.05,1.14) 1.07 (1.02,1.12) 1.06 (1.00,1.12) 1.05 (0.99,1.11)
Income from interest and others (+5%) 1.16 (1.10,1.22) 1.09 (1.03,1.16) 1.06 (0.99,1.14) 1.03 (0.96,1.10)
Management position (+5%) 1.18 (1.11,1.25) 1.11 (1.04,1.18) 1.09 (1.01,1.17) 1.07 (0.99,1.15)
High school education and above (+5%) 1.21 (1.13,1.29) 1.13 (1.05,1.21) 1.12 (1.04,1.21) 1.09 (1.01,1.19)
Median household income (+ $10,000) 1.29 (1.19,1.40) 1.21 (1.11,1.32) 1.14 (1.03,1.27) 1.14 (1.03,1.27)
Vehicle ownership (+5%) 1.40 (1.23,1.59) 1.26 (1.10,1.44) 1.08 (1.02,1.17) 1.18 (1.02,1.37)
Neighborhood socioeconomic advantage score 1.79 (1.47,2.17) 1.47 (1.19,1.82) 1.25 (0.95-1.65) 1.32 (0.99,1.77)
  1. Adjustment 1: Race/ethnicity
  2. Adjustment 2: Race/ethnicity, gender, age, education, income, persons living in household, maternal age, age fed food other than breast milk, age at solid food introduction, birth weight, and study center
  3. Adjustment 3: Variables included in adjustment 2 plus number of siblings and birth order
  4. Data presented in bold are statistically significant at p < 0.05.