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Table 1 Walking and Vehicular travel times on different road surfaces in Niger during the dry and wet season

From: It’s a long, long walk: accessibility to hospitals, maternity and integrated health centers in Niger

Road Type (a) Dry season* (b) Wet season**
  Walking Vehicle Walking Vehicle
Primary (Paved) 5 km/h (12 min/km) 30 km/h (2 min/km) 4 km/h (15 min/km) 20 km/h (3 min/km)
Secondary & Tertiary 4 km/h (15 min/km) 17 km/h (3.5 min/km) 3 km/h (20 min/km) 8 km/h (7.5 min/km)
    Impassable where intersect with a river Impassable where intersect with a river
Track through sandy desert* 2 km/h (30 min/km) 6.78-13.54 km/h (4.4 min/km – 8.6 min/km) 1.7 km/h (40 min/km) Impassable
  1. (a) Dry Season: Documented travelling times in Niger is very limited therefore travelling times along the different types of roads during the dry season were constructed from a variety of sources and are summarized below. (b) Wet Season: Documented travelling times in Niger is very limited therefore travelling times along the different types of roads during the rainy season were constructed from a variety of sources and are summarized below.
  2. *traveling from Agadez to Bilma (approximately 650 km) (across the Tenere Desert) walking with and riding camels takes 2 weeks therefore walking speed was estimated at approximately 2 km/h[59] (similar to Tanser et al.,[65]); travel using local vehicles takes 2–4 days therefore travel speed was calculated to be 6.78–13.54 km/h[60].
  3. ** The desert piste roads (highlighted as track) as well as many of the secondary roads are dirt or gravel and can become impassable after heavy rains[37]. Reduction in travelling speeds are estimates that were based on travel speeds from Nelson[62].