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Table 1 Distribution of individual and regional characteristics by dental caries experience

From: Changing patterns in the association between regional socio-economic context and dental caries experience according to gender and age: A multilevel study in Korean adults

   Total No (DMFT = 0) Yes (DMFT ≥ 1) p-value*
   No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)  
Total**   5,259 (100.0) 625 (11.9) 4,634 (88.1)  
Individual level         
 Gender         
  Men 2,191 (41.7) 367 (16.8) 1,824 (83.3) <0.0001
  Women 3,068 (58.3) 258 (8.4) 2,810 (91.6)  
 Age (years)         
  19–34 1,673 (31.8) 258 (15.4) 1,415 (84.6) <0.0001
  35–44 1,296 (24.6) 184 (14.2) 1,112 (85.8)  
  45–54 1,084 (20.6) 105 (9.7) 979 (90.3)  
  55–64 1,206 (22.9) 78 (6.5) 1,128 (93.5)  
 Monthly family income (thousand Korean won)         
  <500 706 (14.0) 61 (8.6) 645 (91.4) 0.012
  500–990 1,196 (23.7) 144 (12.0) 1,052 (88.0)  
  1000–1490 1,093 (21.6) 130 (11.9) 963 (88.1)  
  ≥1500 2,061 (40.8) 275 (13.3) 1,786 (86.7)  
 Tooth-brushing frequency (number/day)         
  0–1 482 (9.2) 47 (9.8) 435 (90.3) 0.313
  2 2,908 (55.3) 349 (12.0) 2,559 (88.0)  
  ≥3 1,867 (35.5) 228 (12.2) 1,639 (87.8)  
 Regular dental clinic visits         
  No 4,756 (90.4) 541 (11.4) 4,215 (88.6) 0.000
  Yes 503 (9.6) 84 (16.7) 419 (83.3)  
Regional level         
 Factor I (degree of urbanisation)         
  highest 1,255 (23.9) 158 (12.6) 1,097 (87.4) 0.024
  high 1,562 (29.7) 190 (12.2) 1,372 (87.8)  
  middle 1,184 (22.5) 155 (13.1) 1,029 (86.9)  
  low 731 (13.9) 81 (11.1) 650 (88.9)  
  lowest 527 (10.0) 41 (7.8) 486 (92.2)  
 Factor II (density of services and medical facilities)         
  highest 1,114 (21.2) 141 (12.7) 973 (87.3) 0.087
  high 989 (18.8) 128 (12.9) 861 (87.1)  
  middle 1,015 (19.3) 96 (9.5) 919 (90.5)  
  low 843 (16.0) 108 (12.8) 735 (87.2)  
  lowest 1,298 (24.7) 152 (11.7) 1,146 (88.3)  
 Factor III (dependence on manufacturing industry)         
  highest 1,223 (26.9) 192 (13.6) 1,223 (86.4) 0.102
  high 821 (17.8) 117 (12.5) 821 (87.5)  
  middle 857 (18.4) 112 (11.6) 857 (88.4)  
  low 600 (12.8) 73 (10.9) 600 (89.2)  
  lowest 1,133 (24.0) 131 (10.4) 1,133 (89.6)  
 Factor IV (financial health of local government)         
  highest 1,941 (36.9) 254 (13.1) 1,687 (86.9) 0.158
  high 1,110 (21.1) 112 (10.1) 998 (89.9)  
  middle 947 (18.0) 106 (11.2) 841 (88.8)  
  low 633 (12.0) 76 (12.0) 557 (88.0)  
  lowest 628 (11.9) 77 (12.3) 551 (87.7)  
  1. *Results from χ2 test.
  2. **Except monthly family income (203 missing cases) and tooth-brushing frequency (two missing cases).
  3. DMFT, decayed, missing, and filled teeth index.