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Table 1 Comparison of modeled time and assumptions with actual EMS time intervals*

From: A validation of ground ambulance pre-hospital times modeled using geographic information systems

(n) Inside City (29765) Outside City (529)
  Model Time** Actual Time Model Time** Actual Time
Activation 1.4 1.7 (1.3-2.2) 2.9 2.1 (1.6-2.9)
Response 4.4 (3.2-5.9) 4.9 (3.5-6.7) 5.3 (4.3-7.0) 10.9 (8.9-13.6)
On-scene 13.5 21.6 (15.9-27.9) 15.1 22.1 (16.8-28.2)
Transport 7.3 (5.3-9.9) 13.3 (9.5-18.0) 13.1 (10.8-17.5) 20.0 (15.5-26.5)
    Total 26.5 (23.3-30.7) 43.3 (35.7-51.9) 36.4 (33.2-42.5) 57.6 (49.4-67.2)
  1. * All times are in minutes expressed as Median (Interquartile Range).
  2. ** Model times are the assumptions from meta-analysis for Activation and On-scene intervals and GIS derived times for Response and Transport intervals.