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Table 1 Adapted STROBE Statement—checklist of items that should be included in reports of observational studies (including additions/adaptations for accommodating geographical data)

From: A systematic review of the application and utility of geographical information systems for exploring disease-disease relationships in paediatric global health research: the case of anaemia and malaria

  Item No Recommendation
Title and abstract 1 (a) Indicate the study’s design with a commonly used term in the title or the abstract
   (b) Provide in the abstract an informative and balanced summary of what was done and what was found
Introduction   
Background/rationale 2 Explain the scientific background and rationale for the investigation being reported
Objectives 3 State specific objectives, including any prespecified hypotheses
Methods   
Study design 4 Present key elements of study design early in the paper
Setting 5 Describe the setting, locations, and relevant dates, including periods of recruitment, exposure, follow-up, and data collection
Participants 6 (a) Cohort study—Give the eligibility criteria, and the sources and methods of selection of participants. Describe methods of follow-up
   Casecontrol study—Give the eligibility criteria, and the sources and methods of case ascertainment and control selection. Give the rationale for the choice of cases and controls
   Cross-sectional study—Give the eligibility criteria, and the sources and methods of selection of participants
   (b) Cohort study—For matched studies, give matching criteria and number of exposed and unexposed
   Casecontrol study—For matched studies, give matching criteria and the number of controls per case
Variables 7 Clearly define all geographic variables, outcomes, exposures, predictors, potential confounders, and effect modifiers. Give diagnostic criteria, if applicable
Data sources/ measurement 8* For each geographic and outcome variable of interest, give sources of data and details of methods of assessment (measurement). Describe comparability of assessment methods if there is more than one group
Bias 9 Describe any efforts to address potential sources of bias
Study size 10 Explain how the study size was arrived at
Quantitative variables 11 Explain how quantitative geographic and outcome variables were handled in the analyses, including how geographic variables were handled in the creation of attribute tables, thematic maps, etc. using GIS software (as well as the name and version number of the software used). If applicable, describe which groupings were chosen and why.
Statistical methods 12 (a) Describe all statistical methods, including spatial analyses and those used to control for confounding.
   (b) Describe any methods used to examine geographic and outcome subgroups and interactions
   (c) Explain how missing geographic and outcome data were addressed
   (d) Cohort study—If applicable, explain how loss to follow-up was addressed
   Casecontrol study—If applicable, explain how matching of cases and controls was addressed
   Cross-sectional study—If applicable, describe analytical methods taking account of sampling strategy
   (e) Describe any sensitivity analyses
Results   
Participants 13* (a) Report numbers of individuals at each stage of study—e.g. numbers potentially eligible, examined for eligibility, confirmed eligible, included in the study, completing follow-up, and analysed
   (b) Give reasons for non-participation at each stage
   (c) Consider use of a flow diagram
Descriptive data 14* (a) Give characteristics of study participants (e.g. demographic, clinical, social) and information on exposures and potential confounders. Summarize geographic characteristics of study area (if applicable).
   (b) Indicate number of participants with missing data for each geographic and outcome variable of interest
   (c) Cohort study—Summarise follow-up time (e.g., average and total amount)
Outcome data 15* Cohort study—Report numbers of outcome events or summary measures over time
   Casecontrol study—Report numbers in each exposure category, or summary measures of exposure
   Cross-sectional study—Report numbers of outcome events or summary measures
Main results 16 (a) Give unadjusted estimates and, if applicable, confounder-adjusted estimates and their precision (e.g., 95% confidence interval). Make clear which confounders were adjusted for and why they were included
   (b) Report category boundaries when geographic or continuous outcome variables were categorized
   (c) If relevant, consider translating estimates of relative risk into absolute risk for a meaningful time period
Other analyses 17 Report other analyses done—e.g. spatial analyses, analyses of subgroups and interactions, and sensitivity analyses
Discussion   
Key results 18 Summarise key results with reference to study objectives
Limitations 19 Discuss limitations of the study, taking into account sources of potential bias or imprecision. Discuss both direction and magnitude of any potential bias
Interpretation 20 Give a cautious overall interpretation of results considering objectives, limitations, multiplicity of analyses, results from similar studies, and other relevant evidence
Generalisability 21 Discuss the generalisability (external validity) of the study results
Other information   
Funding 22 Give the source of funding and the role of the funders for the present study and, if applicable, for the original study on which the present article is based
  1. *Give information separately for cases and controls in case–control studies and, if applicable, for exposed and unexposed groups in cohort and cross-sectional studies.