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Table 2 Description of selected studies

From: A systematic review of the application and utility of geographical information systems for exploring disease-disease relationships in paediatric global health research: the case of anaemia and malaria

 Author (year)  Source Objectives Target population Target outcome(s) Reporting quality (% score) Quality of evidence (rating)
Snow (1999b) [30] Bull World Hlth Org Estimate age-structured rates of the fatal, morbid and disabling sequelae following expoure to malaria infection under different epiemiolgical conditions. African population Malaria 86.67 0
MARA/ARMA (1998) [31] MARA website Provide a continental perspective of where, how much, when, why, and who is affected by malaria, and establish a continental database of the spatial distribution of malaria in Africa children < 10y (excluding infants) in Africa Malaria 85.00 0
Snow (1998a) [32] Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg Develop climate-based model of transmission intensity and estimate annual morbidity and mortality burden of malaria among children in Kenya. Children 0-10y in Kenya Malaria 83.87 −1
Schellenberg et al., (1998) [26] Int Epi Assoc Study the geographicla pattern of hospital admissions for severe malaria and stability of this pattern over time in Kilifi Distric, Kenya. Children < 5y in Kenya Malaria 81.25 1
Giardina et al. (2012) [28] PloS One Provide spatially explicit burden estimates of malaria using survey data and Bayesian geostatistical zero-inflated binomial models. Children 6–59 months in Senegal Malaria 78.13 2
WHO (2010) [33] WHO website Document success in reducing global malaria burden by summarizing information received from 160 malaria-endemic countries/areas and updating analyses presented in previous annual report. All population groups with malaria data reported to WHO. Malaria 77.59 −1
Root (1999) [34] Int J Pop Geog Map and describe distribution of under-five mortality at provincial level and examine degree to which socio-economic factors and regional disease environments are responsible for spatial patterns. Children < 5y in 20 sub-Saharan African countries Malaria 74.19 −1
Snow (1999a) [35] Parasitology Today Define spatial limits of populations exposed to risk of malaria infection in Africa and obtain best estimate of malaria attributable mortality among infants and children. Children 0-4y in Africa Malaria 72.41 −1
WHO (2008b) [7] WHO website Rreview progress in controlling malaria burden, implementing national policies and strategies on malaria control, funding to support malaria control, and evidence generation on the epidemiological impact of malaria control programmes. All population groups with malaria data reported to WHO. Malaria 70.69 −1
Hightower et al., (1998) [27] Am J Trop Med Hyg Illustrate usefulness of Differential Geographical Positioning System (DGPS) maps to produce a highly accurate base map in a tropical area. Children < 5 years in Siaya district, Western Kenya Malaria 69.35 1
Mbogo (1995) [36] Am J Trop Med Hyg Evaluate the transmission of P. falciparumby vector populations relative to the incidence of severe malaria infections. Children 0-4y from nine sites in Kenya Malaria 62.50 −1
Mbogo (1993) [25] Am J Trop Med Hyg Examine dynamics of P. falciparum transmission by vector populations in relation to the incidenc of severe malaria infections. Children 1-4y from two study sites in Kilifi District, Kenya Malaria 61.29 1
Anthony et al., (1992) [37] Am J Trop Med Hyg Report findings of a 15-month malaria investigation and identify factors contributing to its origin, exacerbation and persistence. Children 0-4y in remote highland community of Oksibil, Indonesia Malaria 59.86 0
Gordon (2004) [38] WHO website Describe environmental factors that affect child health (including parasitic infections such as malaria). Children < 5y worldwide Malaria 41.38 0
WHO (2008a) WHO [2] WHO website Collect and present information on anaemia prevalence by country and WHO region. All population groups [Children 0.5-4.99y, 5–14.99y, (non) pregnant women, men, elderly] Anaemia 88.33 −1
Magalhaes (2011) [24] PLoS Medicine Estimate the geographical risk profile of anaemia while accounting for malaria, malnutrition, and helminth infections. Estimate the risk of anaemia attributable to these factors, and the number of anaemia cases in preschool-aged children for 2011. Children 1-4y in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Mali Anaemia 87.50 1
Greenwell (2006) [29] Population Association America Examine the utility of using child hemoglobin measures (collected in population-based studies) as an indicator for monitoring malaria morbidity. Children 6–59 months in five sub-Saharan African countries Anaemia / Malaria 84.38 2
Mainardi (2012) [21] Int J Geo Info Sci Re-assess spatial heterogeneity and anisotropy of moderate and severe anaemia using variograms and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models. Children < 5y in 173 regions of 20 sub-saharan African countries. Anaemia 76.67 2
Snow (1994) [22] Acta Topica Describe and quantify clinical burden of malaria in communities with markedly different levels of P. falciparum transmission in East Africa. Children 0-9y in Kilifi, Kenya and Ifakara, Tanzania Anaemia / Malaria 70.97 −1
Tanzanian NBS and ICF International (2012) [39] MEASURE DHS website Summarize findings of the 2010 Tanzanian DHS, and provide an atlas of maps intended to easily communicate regional differences in maternal and child health. Women (15-49y) and children (6-59 m) in Tanzania Anaemia 66.67 0