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Table 2 Nigerian-NEWS: answer frequencies, mean scores, and test-retest reliability scores (N = 386)

From: Evaluation of the neighborhood environment walkability scale in Nigeria

  Answer frequencies and mean score of each item on first assessment (%) Test-retest reliability scores
  Types of residences    
Item/scale None A few Some Most All Mean (SD) Agreement% ICC
1. Residential density         0.66
  a. detached houses 17.6 25.1 13.7 28.0 15.5 2.9 (1.3) 87.3 0.93
  b. 1–3 floor town houses with private kitchen 44.3 40.2 10.9 4.7 0.0 1.8 (0.8) 92.1 0.95
  c. 1–3 floor apartments with shared kitchen 29.6 14.3 14.0 37.1 4.9 2.7 (1.3) 84.9 0.90
  d. 4–6 floor apartments 46.2 27.5 9.1 15.8 1.3 2.0 (1.1) 74.9 0.56
  e. 7–12 floor apartments 61.8 10.6 21.0 6.5 0.0 1.7 (1.0) 77.6 0.52
  f. >13 floor compounds 40.0 49.1 10.4 0.5 0.0 1.7 (0.6) 82.7 0.75
  1-5 min 6-10 min 11-20 min 21-30 min >30 min    
2. Distance to facilities (Land Use Mix Diversity)         0.87
  a. grocery shop 38.3 29.0 15.0 10.9 6.7 2.2 (1.2) 69.0 0.86
  b. supermarket 2.8 4.1 11.4 26.9 54.7 4.3 (1.0) 66.2 0.46
  c. electronic shop 4.9 11.9 22.6 29.9 30.6 3.7 (1.2) 60.0 0.74
  d. building materials shop* 3.1 8.9 25.7 28.3 34.0 3.8 (1.1) 66.2 0.66
  e. food market 13.5 44.0 19.2 11.9 11.4 2.6(1.2) 73.3 0.74
  f. laundry/dry cleaners 14.5 31.6 22.8 13.7 17.4 2.9(1.3) 62.8 0.73
  g. clothing store 19.9 33.2 21.5 8.8 16.6 2.7 (1.3) 65.5 0.67
  h. post office 0.5 1.6 1.8 11.4 84.7 4.8 (0.6) 85.6 0.40
  i. library 0.3 0.0 2.1 10.6 87.0 4.8 (0.4) 84.4 0.48
  j. elementary school 20.3 41.3 21.0 12.7 4.7 2.4 (1.1) 55.1 0.67
  k. other schools 10.1 47.9 21.5 14.5 6.0 2.6 (1.0) 60.0 0.68
  l. book store 0.8 2.3 7.0 22.8 67.1 4.5 (0.8) 75.1 0.29
  m. fast food restaurant 1.3 2.8 3.4 18.1 74.4 4.6 (0.8) 81.2 0.47
  n. ATM/bank 2.1 7.5 10.1 21.6 58.7 4.3 (1.1) 61.1 0.66
  o. non fast food restaurant 6.8 13.3 36.8 26.1 17.0 3.3 (1.1) 55.1 0.63
  p. food canteen* 19.5 25.5 19.5 16.4 19.0 2.9 (1.4) 70.0 0.77
  q. video store 18.9 24.9 30.6 14.8 19.9 2.7 (1.2) 56.1 0.54
  r. pharmacy 26.8 42.3 22.1 5.5 3.4 2.2 (0.9) 71.6 0.78
  s. saloon/barber shop 21.0 42.1 16.6 9.9 10.4 2.5 (1.2) 71.1 0.78
  t. work place 7.1 6.1 10.3 15.9 60.6 4.2 (1.3) 73.4 0.60
  u. bus stop/train stop 22.8 30.6 21.0 18.7 7.0 2.6 (1.2) 72.3 0.67
  v. taxi/motor bike* 29.3 37.6 20.7 10.6 1.8 2.2 (1.0) 71.8 0.65
  w. park 2.1 5.2 13.5 24.4 54.9 4.3 (1.0) 82.8 0.37
  x. open field/school field* 13.0 50.4 15.1 13.2 8.3 2.5 (1.1) 58.4 0.65
  y. recreation center/sport center 1.3 1.8 4.1 7.0 85.8 4.7 (0.7) 82.8 0.15
  z. gym/fitness 1.6 2.6 2.8 7.5 85.5 4.7 (0.8) 86.7 0.49
aa. health care clinic* 7.0 24.6 36.5 18.1 13.7 3.1 (1.1) 61.6 0.65
  ab. tap/well water* 67.9 17.4 6.7 5.7 2.3 1.6 (1.0) 77.8 0.68
  Strongly disagree Somewhat disagree Somewhat agree Strongly agree     
3. Land use mix access         0.76
  a. possible to do shopping at local stores 11.2 14.8 34.9 39.1   3.0 (0.9) 66.1 0.55
  b. shops within easy walking distance 14.2 10.9 40.7 34.2   2.9 (1.0) 74.4 0.67
  c. many places in walking distance 17.1 23.1 36.3 23.6   2.7 (1.0) 65.6 0.53
  d. easy to walk to transit stop 5.7 18.7 37.6 38.1   3.1 (0.9) 71.2 0.74
  e. bad roads/poor drainages* 26.2 24.2 18.7 30.9   2.5 (1.2) 66.7 0.80
4. Street connectivity         0.72
  a. distance between intersections is short 21.0 13.8 35.8 29.4   2.7 (1.1) 73.4 0.72
  b. many four-way intersections 26.4 23.1 29.8 20.7   2.5 (1.1) 72.2 0.77
  c. many alternative routes 9.6 17.1 29.0 44.3   3.1 (0.9) 67.2 0.55
5. Infrastructure and safety for walking/cycling         0.59
  a. sidewalks on most streets 46.9 25.9 20.2 7.0   1.9 (0.9) 84.5 0.80
  b. sidewalks well maintained 63.5 28.8 4.4 3.3   1.5 (0.7) 85.0 0.74
  c. bicycle/pedestrian trails nearby 61.8 26.0 7.3 4.9   1.6 (0.8) 86.6 0.37
  d. sidewalks separated by parked cars 39.8 28.1 21.1 10.9   2.0 (1.0) 80.5 0.53
  e. sidewalks separated by grass/dirt strip 32.4 24.6 29.3 13.7   2.2 (1.1) 81.1 0.68
  f. safe to ride a bicycle 17.4 18.4 47.3 16.9   2.6 (0.9) 62.8 0.47
  g. streets well lit at night 42.6 19.0 25.7 12.7   2.1 (1.1) 72.7 0.72
  h. walkers and cyclists easily seen by people in homes 53.9 20.3 13.3 12.5   1.8 (1.1) 73.5 0.87
  i. crosswalks and pedestrian signals available 82.1 12.7 3.4 1.8   1.3 (0.6) 91.7 0.05
  j. crosswalks are safe 80.8 14.8 3.9 0.5   1.2 (0.5) 89.4 0.01
  k. facilities for bicycle use (lanes etc.) available* 62.0 25.5 6.5 6.0   1.6 (0.9) 89.4 0.52
  l. walk path on most streets* 6.5 21.0 42.5 30.1   2.9 (0.9) 76.1 0.76
  m. walk path not obstructed* 7.5 38.4 30.9 23.1   2.7 (0.9) 68.3 0.53
  n. walk path separated from road* 20.0 24.2 35.8 20.0   2.6 (1.0) 73.3 0.70
  o. curb cut ramps from sidewalk to road* 46.4 13.7 29.0 10.8   2.0 (1.1) 88.8 0.20
  p. have to cross crowded streets to get to places* 53.8 36.4 8.3 1.6   1.6 (0.7) 74.9 0.68
  q. islands for pedestrians in middle of major roads * 65.1 18.0 12.2 4.7   1.6 (0.9) 84.4 0.85
  r. pedestrian signals give enough time to cross street* 83.4 11.2 3.1 2.3   1.2 (0.6) 96.1 0.02
6. Aesthetics         0.91
  a. presence of trees 28.0 20.2 23.8 28.0   2.5 (1.2) 75.0 0.85
  b. trees give shade 35.0 19.2 27.7 18.1   2.3 (1.1) 74.5 0.83
  c. many interesting things to look at 35.0 17.4 25.4 22.3   2.4 (1.2) 71.8 0.81
  d. neighborhood is free from litter 29.1 21.0 21.0 28.8   2.5 (1.2) 74.6 0.85
  e. attractive natural sights 51.7 26.2 12.5 9.6   1.8 (0.9) 71.1 0.31
  f. attractive buildings 22.0 23.3 23.1 31.6   2.6(1.1) 62.8 0.50
7. Traffic safety         0.65
  a. much traffic on street I live 52.0 31.9 11.2 5.0   1.7 (0.9) 82.0 0.74
  b. much traffic on nearby streets 39.8 34.1 19.3 6.3   1.9 (0.9) 73.0 0.75
  c. speed of traffic on street I live is slow 13.3 21.6 29.7 35.4   2.9 (1.0) 78.0 0.80
  d. speed of traffic on nearby streets is slow 26.0 33.6 22.1 18.2   2.3 (1.1) 70.8 0.76
  e. drivers exceed speed limits 28.4 28.4 28.1 15.1   2.3 (1.1) 66.8 0.60
  f. a lot of exhaust fumes 40.9 27.1 18.0 14.1   2.1 (1.1) 71.5 0.41
  g. cars going across sidewalks make it difficult to walk* 36.5 34.9 19.3 9.4   2.0 (0.9) 74.8 0.68
8. Safety from crime         0.66
  a. high crime rate 46.5 23.6 18.2 11.7   2.0 (1.1) 82.1 0.82
  b. unsafe to walk during day 55.6 38.2 4.7 1.6   1.5 (0.7) 85.0 0.61
  c. unsafe to walk at night 33.0 24.9 20.0 22.1   2.3 (1.1) 69.9 0.68
  d. presence of gangs induces unsafe feeling* 43.6 24.7 16.4 15.3   2.0 (1.1) 76.6 0.70
9. Single items         
  a. parking near local shops is difficult 25.2 27.5 35.3 11.9   2.3 (0.9) 58.9 0.53
  b. streets are hilly 56.0 26.2 10.1 7.8   1.7 (0.9) 91.2 0.48
  c. streets do not have many cul-de-sacs 20.7 27.5 21.8 30.1   2.6 (1.1) 70.6 0.66
  d. many canyons/hillsides in neighborhood 56.0 22.3 12.4 9.3   1.8 (0.9) 91.6 0.53
  e. see and speak to other people while walking in neighborhood 19.7 16.1 34.3 29.9   2.7 (1.1) 64.3 0.81
  f. many unattended domestic animals* 30.6 15.3 16.4 37.7   2.6 (1.3) 78.0 0.86
  1. ICC = intra class coefficient.
  2. * Specific African items added to NEWS.