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Table 3 Construct validity of Nigerian-NEWS differences in environmental perceptions between objective high-walkable and low-walkable neighborhoods (N = 386)

From: Evaluation of the neighborhood environment walkability scale in Nigeria

Environmental perceptions High-walkable/low SES neighborhoods (n = 195) mean (SD) Low-walkable/high SES neighborhoods (n = 191) mean (SD) F
Multivariate model    67.7***
Environmental scales    
Residential density 363.0 (110.8) 256.8 (67.8) 72.2***
Land use mix diversity 2.9 (0.4) 2.4 (0.5) 113.9***
Land use mix access 2.8 (0.5) 2.9 (0.6) 1.4
Street connectivity 3.0 (0.9) 2.6 (0.7) 12.5**
Infrastructure and safety for walking/cycling 1.9 (0.3) 2.1 (0.4) 28.5***
Aesthetics 1.7 (0.6) 3.0 (0.6) 294.7***
Traffic safety 2.6 (0.4) 2.3 (0.3) 40.0***
Safety from crime 2.6 (0.5) 2.3 (0.3) 30.3***
Single items    
Parking near local shops is difficult 2.7 (0.8) 2.1 (1.0) 29.1***
Streets are hilly 3.9 (1.1) 4.7 (0.6) 58.3***
Streets do not have many cul-de-sacs 2.3 (1.0) 2.9 (1.1) 13.8**
Many canyons/hillsides in neighborhood 3.9 (1.1) 4.5 (0.8) 25.7***
See and speak to other people while walking in neighborhood 3.4 (0.7) 2.1 (1.1) 148.2***
Many unattended domestic animals 3.5 (0.8) 1.7 (1.0) 286.6***
  1. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, income and educational level of the participants.
  2. All environmental scales were positively scored, i.e. higher score = more activity-friendly.
  3. ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001.