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Table 1 Relationships between hospitalizations and some of the explanatory indicators for COPD and overall hospitalizations

From: Gaining a better understanding of respiratory health inequalities among cities: An ecological case study on elderly males in the larger French cities

  Type of indicator COPD hospitalizations Overall hospitalizations
   Signi-ficance level Type of relationship Signi-ficance level Type of relationship
Socio-economic indicators Urban unit scale: n.s no significant relation n.s no significant relation
Size (number of inhabitants)
Urban unit scale : 0.001 Linear: privileged cities have lower hospitalization rates n.s no significant relation
Socioeconomic (% unemployment,% of individuals with no diploma, bachelor diploma,% of non taxable households, etc.)
Positive with unemployment, non taxable households (0.3<r<0.5)
Negative with bachelor diploma (r=−0.5)
Intra-urban scale 0.001 Linear positive: cities with concentration of privileged populations have higher hospitalization rates (0.3<r<0.44) 0.001 Linear positive: cities with concentration of privileged populations have higher rates (0.28<r<0.40)
Residential intra-urban organization indicators (CV, Gini, Moran of unemployment,% of individuals with no diploma, bachelor diploma,% of non taxable households, etc.)
Linear negative: cities with concentration of deprived populations have lower rates (−0.3<r<−0.48)
Linear negative: cities with concentration of deprived populations have lower rates (r=−0.43)
Regional scale 0.001 Linear positive: cities in deprived regions have higher hospitalization rates (0.33<r<0.47) n.s no significant relation
Socioeconomic (% unemployment, etc.)
Urban unit scale n.s no significant relation n.s no significant relation
Access to health amenities
Physical indicators Urban unit scale : 0.05 Linear negative with the daily mean temperature in January (r=−0.28) 0.05 no significant relation
Climate parameters (temperature, humidity)
Linear positive with the mean annual minimal relative humidity (r=0.34) No significant relation with other climate indicators
Regional scale n.s no significant relation 0.007 Higher hospitalization rates in semi-continental climate ; lower rates in mountain climate
Climate zones
Urban unit scale: 0.05 Globally lower hospitalization rates for less polluted locations n.s no significant relation
Air pollution (ambient levels of PM 10 , NO 2 )
Linear positive for PM10 (0.28<r<0.30 )
Non linear positive for NO2
Intra-urban scale: n.s no significant relation n.s no significant relation
Air pollution (intra-urban variations of PM 10 , NO 2 )
Urban unit scale n.s no significant relation n.s no significant relation
  Pollen index