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Table 1 Description of environmental features present in walking and cycling journeys

From: Utility of passive photography to objectively audit built environment features of active transport journeys: an observational study

Feature Description Cycling (n = 599) Walking (n = 1150) Total (n = 1749)
   n (%) n (%) n (%)
Bus stop Bus stop visible in photo 44 7.3 69 6.0 113 6.5
Cars driving Cars in motion or in traffic lanes on road 388 64.8 674 58.6* 1062 60.7
Cars in carpark Cars parked in car park wholly or more than 2/3 partially visible 68 11.4 110 9.6 178 10.2
Cars parked Cars parked on side of the road 190 31.7 151 13.1** 341 19.5
Commercial Commercial or institutional buildings visible 281 46.9 648 56.3** 929 53.1
Congested traffic More than 6 stationary cars in driving lanes 4 0.7 10 0.9 14 0.8
Cycle lanes Designated cycle lane on road or footpath 16 2.7 247 21.5** 263 15.0
Cyclists Any person/people riding cycles other than the participant 6 1.0 8 0.7 14 0.8
Dark Image indicates journey conducted in darkness (e.g., dusk or dawn, streetlights on) but features still visible and image codeable 120 20.0 209 18.2 329 18.8
Dogs Dogs or a lead in participant hand visible 0 0.0 4 0.3 4 0.2
Footpath Footpath visible (not walkway/pathway) 338 56.4 761 66.2** 1099 62.8
Footpath good condition No cracks or potholes visible 327 54.6 759 66.0** 1086 62.1
Graffiti Graffiti visible 0 0.0 2 0.2 2 0.1
Grass verge Any area of grass either beside road or footpath 270 45.1 504 43.8 774 44.3
Grass verge maintained No obvious weeds or overgrown grass 262 43.7 454 39.5 716 40.9
Litter Litter present (e.g., paper, food wrappings, etc.) 1 0.2 1 0.1 2 0.1
Other lights Lights from houses, buildings or cars in photos 247 41.2 348 30.3** 595 34.0
Pedestrian crossing Zebra crossings and traffic light pedestrian crossings visible 82 13.7 240 20.9** 322 18.4
Pedestrians Any person/people in the photo other than the participant 63 10.5 272 23.7** 335 19.2
Permanent obstructions to cycling Tree, signage, or other permanent structure in cycleway 2 0.3 0 0.0 2 0.1
Permanent obstructions to walking Tree, signage, or other permanent structure on footpath/walkway 2 0.3 0 0.0 2 0.1
Rain Rain visible 63 10.5 54 4.7** 117 6.7
Residential Private homes visible 155 25.9 229 19.9** 384 22.0
Retail buildings Buildings with retail/shop-fronts visible 141 23.5 165 14.3** 306 17.5
Road good condition No cracks or potholes visible 462 77.1 820 71.3** 1282 73.3
Street lighting Street lights visible (not including traffic lights) 209 34.9 531 46.2** 740 42.3
Temporary obstructions to cycling Rubbish bins, parked cars, roadworks, etc. in cycleways 9 1.5 11 1.0 20 1.1
Temporary obstructions to walking Rubbish bins, parked cars, roadworks, etc. on footpath/walkway 14 2.3 41 3.6 55 3.1
Trees Any trees visible in photo including from a distance 441 73.6 842 73.2 1283 73.4
Walkway Journey occurring in walkway/pathway (not road or footpath) 45 7.5 200 17.4** 245 14.0
  1. Notes: Data were collected in Auckland, New Zealand, in June 2011.
  2. n = number of images.
  3. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01 significant difference in features present between walking and cycling journeys; If photo was too dark to code individual features then it was coded as uncodeable and not included here; %, percentage of walking or cycling images where feature was present; n, number of images.