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Table 2 Associations of covariates, neighborhood walkability, income and study site with the different outcome measures: results of two-level multiple regression analyses

From: Associations of neighborhood characteristics with active park use: an observational study in two cities in the USA and Belgium

  Number of visitors per observationa Number of visitors sedentary per observationb Number of visitors walking per observationb Number of visitors doing vigorous PA per observationb METs per observationa
  β (SE) β (SE) β (SE) β (SE) β (SE)
Covariates      
Park size 0.011 (0.032) −0.038 (0.009)*** −0.021 (0.026) 0.046 (0.021)* 0.077 (0.048)
Day type (ref = weekday) −0.396 (0.054)*** −0.141 (0.093) −0.185 (0.130) 0.186 (0.101)* 0.448 (0.752)
Time of day (ref = morning)      
 Noon 1.321 (0.087)*** 1.026 (0.185)*** −0.562 (0.164)*** −0.253 (0.172) 2.321 (0.996)**
 Afternoon 1.657 (0.081)*** 0.848 (0.183)*** −0.722 (0.156)*** 0.314 (0.158)* 4.179 (0.993)***
 Evening 0.449 (0.112)*** 0.798 (0.216)*** −0.529 (0.209)** −0.170 (0.193) 0.240 (1.150)
Darkness (ref = dark) 0.147 (0.126) 0.446 (0.246)* 0.604 (0.353)* −0.095 (0.206) 1.880 (1.359)
Weather (ref = cloudy)      
 Clear 0.080 (0.079) 0.242 (0.127)* −0.078 (0.176) −0.068 (0.153) 1.542 (0.811)*
 Rainy −1.031 (0.310)*** −1.418 (1.085) −1.008 (1.056) 0.817 (0.427)* −1.412 (2.643)
Number of visitors/observation   3.160 (0.082)*** 3.140 (0.122)*** 3.596 (0.102)***  
Main effects      
Study site (ref = Ghent) −0.373 (0.048)*** −0.020 (0.083) −0.376 (0.119)*** 0.552 (0.103)*** 1.437 (0.743)*
Walkability (ref = low) 0.766 (0.059)*** 0.284 (0.091)*** 0.653 (0.147)*** −0.152 (0.116) 2.096 (0.814)***
Income (ref = low) 0.212 (0.055)*** 0.031 (0.090) −0.062 (0.136) −0.765 (0.108)*** −0.122 (0.806)
  1. PA = physical activity.
  2. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001.
  3. Note: Park size is a level-2 variable; all other covariates are level-1 variables.
  4. a regression analyses adjusted for park size, day type, time of day, darkness and weather.
  5. b regression analyses adjusted for park size, day type, time of day, darkness, weather and number of visitors per observation.