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Table 1 Food environment exposure metrics compared in this study, and precedent for their use in the literature

From: Creating ‘obesogenic realities’; do our methodological choices make a difference when measuring the food environment?

Variable Description Precedent for usea
1000 population Density of food outlets per 1000 population/per km2, per LSOA O’Dwyer & Coveney [25] | Maddock [26] | Mehta & Chang [27] Ball et al.[6] | Moore & Diez Roux [28] | Chou et al.[29] Mobley et al.[30] | Simmons et al.[31] Sturm & Datar [32] Black et al.[33] | Powell et al.[34] | Burgoine et al.[10] Cummins et al.[35] | Reidpath et al.[36] | Macdonald et al.[37] Macdonald et al.[16]
km2   Block et al.[38] | Maddock [26] | Moore and Diez Roux [28]
LSOA centroid   
Density per buffer at:   
400 m Euclidean radius Counts of food outlets within 400/800/1000 m Euclidean radius buffers from population-weighted centroids of LSOA Austin et al.c[39] | Currie et al.c[40]
800 m Euclidean radius   Austin et al.c[39] | Jeffery et al.c[41] | Laraia et al.c[42] Timperio et al.c[43] | Currie et al.c[40] Spence et al.c[44]
1000 m Euclidean radius   Apparicio et al.[11] | Smoyer-Tomic et al.[45] | Seliske et al.c[46]
400 m Street Network Counts of food outlets within 400/800/1000 m street network buffers from population-weighted centroids of LSOA Smith et al.c[47]
800 m Street Network   Smoyer-Tomic et al.[50] | Harrison et al.[48]
1000 m Street Network   Larsen & Gillilandc[49] | Seliske et al.[46]
Proximity using:   
Euclidean distance Euclidean or street network distance (m) from LSOA population-weighted centroids to nearest food outlet Apparicio et al.[11] | Winkler et al.[12] | Bodor et al.[13]
Street network distance   Zenk et al.b[14] | Pearce et al.[15] | Macdonald et al.[16] | Smith et al.[17] Pearce et al.[18] | Sharkey et al.[19] | Pearce et al.d[20] Sharkey & Horel [21] | Block et al.c[24] | Burdette & Whitaker [22] | Frank et al.c[23]
  1. aMethodologically similar, not necessarily using LSOAs; using imperial or metric measurements; geographic- or population-weighted centroids.
  2. bManhattan block distance used as an alternative to street network distance.
  3. cBuffer sizes employed around known home or school address.
  4. dUsed travel time rather than travel distance.