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Table 1 Demographic, socioeconomic, environmental and health characteristics of the NUTS2 regions in the study in 2004

From: Particulate air pollution and health inequalities: a Europe-wide ecological analysis

Variable n Mean Standard deviation Minimum Maximum
Population 268 1,848,263 1,462,705 26,347 11,350,290
Area (km2) 268 17,552 21,094 160 154,191
Population density (per km2) 268 346 835 3 9142
PM10: population-weighted annual average (μg.m-3) 268 22.3 7.6 2.7 48.5
PM10: population-weighted 36th highest daily mean (μg.m-3) 268 37.1 13.1 3.4 82.7
Mean household income (PPCS) 235 14,689 5,389 2,736 29,707
Mean smoking rate (%, country level) 29 32.0 1.18 18.6 45.1
Premature mortality rate (per 100,000, 2004–2006)
  All-cause male 210 305.3 124.2 103.2 706.6
  All-cause female 210 145.6 40.9 78.3 279.5
  Circulatory disease male 210 79.6 52.7 24.2 274.8
  Circulatory disease female 210 27.2 19.5 7.8 104.3
  Respiratory disease male 210 11.8 7.3 2.8 47.2
  Respiratory disease female 210 6.0 3.4 1.5 20.4
  Chronic liver disease male 210 16.5 12.9 1.8 80.6
  Chronic liver disease female 210 5.9 4.6 0.6 26.2
  1. Abbreviations: NUTS2 Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics level 2, PM 10 Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm, PPCS Purchasing power consumption standard.