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Table 2 The relationship between regional average household income and population-weighted annual average PM 10 (μg.m -3 ), 2004–2008

From: Particulate air pollution and health inequalities: a Europe-wide ecological analysis

  (a) Correlation coefficients (b) Pollutant means (μg.m-3, CI)
   by household income quintile (year specific) Ratio Q1:Q5
  All regions Q1 (lowest) Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 (highest)
Whole sample
n regions 235 235 47 47 47 47 47  
2004 −0.25** 21.7 (20.7 to 22.7) 27.5 (25.4 to 29.5)£ 21.4 (19.0 to 23.7) 18.7 (17.3 to 20.1)$ 22.2 (20.5 to 23.9) 23.1 (21.3 to 24.9) 1.2
2005 −0.35*** 22.9 (21.9 to 24.0) 30.4 (28.3 to 32.6)£ 21.7 (19.8 to 23.6) 19.1 (17.6 to 20.6)$ 23.0 (21.2 to 24.8) 23.0 (21.3 to 24.7) 1.3
2006 −0.33*** 24.7 (23.7 to 25.6) 31.4 (29.4 to 33.4)£ 23.8 (22.1 to 25.5) 20.7 (19.1 to 22.3)$ 25.5 (23.9 to 27.2) 24.7 (23.1 to 26.3) 1.3
2007 −0.20** 22.1 (21.3 to 22.9) 25.9 (24.3 to 27.6)£ 22.1 (20.5 to 23.6) 20.2 (18.9 to 21.6) 22.7 (20.9 to 24.6) 22.5 (20.9 to 24.1) 1.2
2008 −0.14* 19.4 (18.8 to 20.0) 22.3 (21.0 to 23.5)£ 19.4 (18.0 to 20.9) 18.3 (17.2 to 19.4) 20.0 (18.6 to 21.4) 20.2 (18.9 to 21.6) 1.1
2004 to 2008 change (% 2004) −10.7 −18.9 −9.0 −2.1 −10.1 −12.5  
Western Europe
n regions 187 187 38 37 38 37 37  
2004 0.10 21.2 (20.3 to 22.1) 21.9 (19.6 to 24.2) 18.0 (16.0 to 19.9)$ 20.8 (19.1 to 22.5) 22.2 (20.1 to 24.3) 23.1 (21.1 to 25.2) 0.9
2005 0.13* 21.5 (20.7 to 22.4) 21.5 (19.5 to 23.5) 18.8 (17.0 to 20.5)$ 20.9 (19.2 to 22.6) 23.0 (21.2 to 24.9) 23.6 (21.5 to 25.7) 0.9
2006 0.17* 23.5 (22.7 to 24.3) 23.1 (21.4 to 24.8) 20.9 (19.2 to 22.6)$ 23.4 (21.5 to 25.4) 25.0 (23.1 to 26.9) 25.1 (23.3 to 27.0) 0.9
2007 0.07 21.9 (21.1 to 22.7) 21.9 (20.1 to 23.8) 20.3 (18.7 to 21.9) 21.4 (19.5 to 23.2) 22.6 (20.8 to 24.4) 23.1 (21.2 to 25.1) 0.9
2008 0.08 19.4 (18.8 to 20.1) 19.6 (17.9 to 21.2) 17.8 (16.6 to 19.0) 19.5 (18.2 to 20.8) 20.0 (18.3 to 21.7) 20.1 (18.6 to 21.7) 1.0
2004 to 2008 change (% 2004) −8.5 −10.5 −0.8 −6.1 −10.0 −13.0  
Eastern Europe
n regions 48 48 10 10 9 10 9  
2004 −0.01 27.8 (25.8 to 29.9) 31.8 (28.1 to 35.4) 24.7 (20.2 to 29.1) 22.4 (17.4 to 27.4) 31.7 (25.8 to 37.6) 28.1 (25.6 to 30.6) 1.1
2005 −0.04 30.8 (28.7 to 32.9) 34.9 (31.6 to 38.2) 28.8 (23.5 to 34.0) 25.1 (20.6 to 29.5) 34.6 (28.3 to 41.0) 30.0 (27.4 to 32.6) 1.2
2006 −0.11 32.0 (30.1 to 33.9) 34.5 (32.3 to 36.7) 32.0 (27.6 to 36.5) 27.8 (23.9 to 31.7) 33.3 (27.0 to 39.7) 31.8 (26.6 to 37.0) 1.1
2007 −0.17 25.9 (24.3 to 27.5) 29.5 (26.8 to 32.3) 25.9 (22.3 to 29.5) 21.8 (19.2 to 24.4) 25.9 (21.0 to 30.8) 26.1 (21.5 to 30.8) 1.1
2008 0.06 22.4 (21.1 to 23.8) 22.5 (20.5 to 24.5) 24.0 (22.0 to 26.1) 18.4 (14.9 to 21.9) 23.6 (20.2 to 27.0) 23.4 (19.2 to 27.6) 1.0
2004 to 2008 change (% 2004) −19.4 −29.1 −2.5 −17.9 −25.6 −16.8  
  1. Results given for the whole sample and the Western and Eastern European subsamples: (a) correlation coefficients; (b) mean values (95% confidence interval, CI) for all regions combined and for household income quintiles.
  2. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, PM 10 Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm.
  3. Correlation coefficients: *0.001 ≤ p < 0.1; **0.0001 ≤ p < 0.001; *** p < 0.0001.
  4. Pollutant means: £ indicates mean is significantly higher than Europe-wide average (p < 0.05), $ indicates significantly lower (p < 0.05).