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Table 3 Regression coefficients (+ 95% confidence intervals) for the relationship between PM 10 concentration and cause- and sex-specific age-adjusted mortality rate

From: Particulate air pollution and health inequalities: a Europe-wide ecological analysis

Cause of death Western Europe   Eastern Europe  
Male Female Male Female
All cause 0.74 (−0.28 to 1.77) −0.30 (−0.78 to 0.18) 1.33 (−1.86 to 4.53) 1.74 (0.39 to 3.08)*
Circulatory disease −0.16 (−0.51 to 0.19) 0.06 (−0.08 to 0.20) 2.67 (1.44 to 3.90)*** 1.38 (0.80 to 1.96)***
Respiratory disease 0.15 (0.06 to 0.24)** −0.01 (−0.08 to 0.05) 0.42 (0.17 to 0.67)** 0.19 (0.07 to 0.32)**
Chronic liver disease 0.08 (−0.10 to 0.25) 0.00 (−0.07 to 0.07) 0.68 (−0.04 to 1.40) 0.24 (−0.01 to 0.49)
  1. Models were adjusted for regional-level household income and country-level smoking rate and run separately for Eastern and Western Europe. PM10 concentration = 2004 population-weighted annual average (μg.m-3). Mortality rates = 3-year average 2004–2006 (deaths per 100,000).
  2. Abbreviations: PM 10 , Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm.
  3. * 0.01 ≤ p < 0.05; ** 0.001 ≤ p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001.