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Table 3 Model explaining daily walking for transportation including the environmental index, distance to destinations and their interaction terms

From: Older adults’ transportation walking: a cross-sectional study on the cumulative influence of physical environmental factors

  β S.E. 95% C.I.
Constant −0.632 0.157 (-0.941, -0.325)*
Age (GM) 0.004 0.002 (-0.001, 0.009)
Gender (ref. = female) 0.222 0.027 (0.169, 0.275)*
Marital status (ref. = widowed)    
 Married / Cohabiting 0.306 0.059 (0.190, 0.421)*
 Living alone / divorced −0.103 0.035 (-0.173, -0.034)*
Functional limitations −0.151 0.006 (-0.162, -0.139)*
Educational level (ref.= primary education)    
 Lower secondary education 0.067 0.032 (0.003, 0.130)*
 Higher secondary education 0.055 0.038 (-0.021, 0.130)
 Tertiary education 0.085 0.047 (-0.006, 0.177)
Income (ref. = 500 - 999 euro)    
 1000 - 1499 euro 0.115 0.036 (0.045, 0.185)*
 1500 - 1999 euro 0.128 0.043 (0.045, 0.211)*
 ≥ 2000 euro 0.012 0.048 (-0.082, 0.108)
Area of residence (ref. = rural)    
 Semi-urban 0.047 0.060 (-0.072, 0.164)
 Urban 0.306 0.062 (0.186, 0.427)*
Environmental index    
 Environmental index −0.046 0.078 (-0.199, 0.107)
 Environmental index2 0.001 0.010 (-0.019, 0.020)
Distance to destinations (ref.= large distance)    
 Medium distance −0.376 0.225 (-0.822, 0.065)
 Short distance 0.626 0.202 (0.230, 1.021)*
Interaction terms    
 Environmental index * medium distance 0.282 0.113 (0.062, 0.505)*
 Environmental index2 * medium distance −0.029 0.013 (-0.055, -0.002)*
 Environmental index * short distance −0.103 0.099 (-0.297, 0.093)
 Environmental index2 * short distance 0.020 0.012 (-0.003, 0.043)
Variances Var/covar S.E. 95% C.I.
Level: municipality    
Constant/constant 0.062 0.013 (0.040, 0.091)*
Short distance/constant −0.013 0.011 (-0.038, 0.007)
Short distance/short distance 0.039 0.015 (0.015, 0.075)*
−2*loglikelihood:    
DIC: 34838.265   
pD: 157.533   
  1. S.E. Standard Error, C.I. (Bayesian) Confidence Interval, GM centered around its grand mean, DIC Deviance Information Criterium; pD= estimated degrees of freedom consumed in fitting the model. * p< 0.05.