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Table 2 Demographic characteristics for significant spatial cluster compared to the remainder of the study area using GEE logistic regression

From: Geospatial analyses to identify clusters of adverse antenatal factors for targeted interventions

  Smoking during pregnancy clusters n (%) 1st antenatal visit at ≥10 weeks clusters n (%)
  Clusters Remainder of the study area p-value Clusters Remainder of the study area p-value
  47,593 147,907   96,308 99,192  
Smoke during pregnancy 8,767 (18.6) 11,768 (8.1) <0.0001 11,703 (12.3) 8,832 (9.1) 0.2465
1st antenatal visit ≥10 weeks 36,991 (79.2) 109,491 (75.1) 0.0112 77,767 (80.8) 68,715 (71.5) <0.0001
Overseas-born 19,681 (41.4) 69,050 (46.7) 0.5045 52,914 (54.9) 35,817 (36.1) 0.0623
Maternal age (years)
  <35 40,552 (85.2) 115,607 (78.2) <0.0001 79,123 (82.2) 77,036 (77.7) 0.3988
  ≥35 7,034 (14.8) 32,273 (21.8)   17,171 (17.8) 22,136 (22.3)  
Index of Relative Socio-economic Disadvantage
  Most disadvantaged 20,447 (44.0) 44,094 (30.0) 0.4621 56,621 (56.4) 10,920 (11.1) 0.0014
  Middle and least disadvantaged 26,078 (56.1) 103,000 (70.0)   41,437 (46.6) 87,641 (88.9)  
Plurality 1,386 (2.9) 4,500 (3.0) 0.1162 2,748 (2.9) 3,138 (3.2) 0.0021
Primiparous 17,616 (37.0) 65,647 (44.5) <0.0001 40,000 (41.5) 43,263 (43.8) 0.8380