Skip to main content

Table 1 Descriptive statistics by district

From: Spatial autocorrelation in uptake of antenatal care and relationship to individual, household and village-level factors: results from a community-based survey of pregnant women in six districts in western Kenya

  Bungoma East Teso North Chulaimbo Bunyala Burnt forest Kapsaret  
  N N N N N N  
Total population 187665 44,301 52,674 56,670 63,472 56,006  
Total households 46,826 11,470 15,663 17,443 18,015 17,706  
Total women age 13 to 45 (interviewed) 43,739 7,083 13,060 13,958 6,988 15,087  
Pregnant women (analysis samp.) 3008 521 736 1031 299 582  
Variables Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD P-value*
Outcome variable        
Attended ANC (%) 0.570 0.678 0.683 0.574 0.475 0.636  
Individual level        
Age (%)        0.535
  Age < 18 5.8 3.3 8.7 3.7 2.3 1.4  
  Age 18 to 24 45.1 46.1 46.5 53.3 34.8 39.2  
  Age 25 to 34 37.3 39.9 38.7 35.4 47.2 47.9  
  Age 35+ 11.8 10.7 6.1 7.6 15.7 11.5  
Marital status (%)        <0.001
  Married/Partnered 88 82.5 74.6 73.2 75.9 77  
  Divorced/Separated/Widowed 2.8 3.1 6 6.1 3.7 4.1  
  Never married 9.2 14.4 19.4 20.7 20.4 18.9  
Housework (%)        <0.001
  No housework 6.9 5.4 4.9 3.1 6 4.5  
  10 hours or less/week 47.5 18 17.1 21.3 21.4 12.5  
  11 to 34 hours/week 24.6 39.9 48.8 41 43.1 47.3  
  Greater than 35 hours/week 21.1 36.7 29.2 34.5 29.4 35.7  
Work for pay (%)        <0.001
  No work for pay 76.8 65.5 64.9 62.9 47.8 58.9  
  10 hours or less/week 8.8 8.3 9 8.1 13 8.6  
  11 to 34 hours/week 8.8 15.7 17.4 19.8 22.4 17.4  
  Greater than 35 hours/week 5.5 10.6 8.7 9.3 16.7 15.1  
Household Level Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD  
Total household members 4.19 ± 2.17 3.97 ± 2.06 3.80 + 1.76 3.65 ± 1.86 4.09 ± 2.05 3.43 ± 1.68 <0.001
Number of children ≤5y in HH 1.074 ± 0.927 0.887 ± 0.768 1.076 ± 0.865 0.887 ± 0.778 0.779 ± 0.713 0.631 ± 0.645 <0.001
Number of children 6 –13y in HH 0.915 ± 1.225 1.031 ± 1.234 0.913 ± 1.145 0.884 ± 1.159 1.127 ± 1.230 0.923 ± 1.096 0.0145
Nearest health facility (%)        0.0002
  Dispensary 64.6 48.4 59.8 54 39.8 58.8  
  Health center 18.7 47.2 16 14.6 60.2 41.2  
  Hospital 16.7 24.2 24.2 31.3    
Distance to nearest health facility (meters) 2157 ± 1020 2476 ± 1430 1759 ± 844 1867 ± 1048 3438 ± 1512 2498 ± 1413 <0.001
Distance to road (meters) 2049 ± 1546 3826 ± 2109 1717 ± 1212 1415 ± 1549 3015 ± 2005 2443 ± 1958 <0.001
Total animals owned by household 1.300 ± 2.057 1.468 ± 2.303 1.531 ± 2.808 1.051 ± 2.495 3.652 ± 6.437 2.007 ± 3.257 <0.001
Household owns land (%) 75.5 74.3 64.3 51.9 57.9 69.2 <0.001
Village level        
Fraction of children attending school (%) 79.8 83.5 85.3 79 86.1 85.2 <0.001
Average number of animals per HH 1.687 ± 0.525 1.752 ± 0.702 2.155 ± 0.767 1.051 ± 2.495 4.378 ± 1.596 2.094 ± 0.503 <0.001
Fraction of households owning land (%) 75.4 77.5 71.1 57.2 60.4 69.9 <0.001
Pregnancies in village (per 1000 WRA) 87.2 ± 32.8 99.3 ± 54.1 73.7 ± 32.0 96.2 ± 50.6 91.6 ± 38.2 71.6 ± 33.7 <0.001
  1. *Differences between districts compared using one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni corrections for continuous variables and Cochran–Mantel–Haenszel statistics for binary/categorical variables.