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Table 1 Characteristics of Life Course Built Environment and Health participants and their neighbourhoods, Perth, Western Australia (2003–2009)

From: People living in hilly residential areas in metropolitan Perth have less diabetes: spurious association or important environmental determinant?

  Total sample (n = 11,406) People with self-reported diabetes (n = 964) People without self-reported diabetes (n = 10,442) p-value
Individual characteristics     
Age in years (mean ± SD) 55.8 ± 15.8 64.3 ± 13.4 55.0 ± 15.7 <0.001
Sex - Male (%) 51.4 49.4 40.7 <0.001
  - Female (%) 58.6 50.6 59.3  
Education     <0.001
  - Mid-secondary (%) 8.8 16.3 8.1  
  - Upper secondary (%) 20.3 22.0 20.2  
  - Final year of secondary school (%) 11.1 8.1 11.3  
  - Tafe/trade qualification (%) 36.3 38.7 36.1  
  - University degree or equivalent (%) 23.5 14.9 24.3  
Income (AUD)     <0.001
  - Under $20,000 (%) 19.6 35.2 18.2  
  - $20,001-$40,000 (%) 23.3 29.2 22.8  
  - $40,001-$60,000 (%) 16.0 12.7 16.3  
  - $60,001-$80,000 (%) 14.3 7.7 14.9  
  - Over $80,000 (%) 26.7 15.2 27.8  
Daily serves of vegetables usually consumed (mean ± SD) 3.0 ± 1.6 3.0 ± 1.6 3.0 ± 1.6 0.530
Daily services of fruit usually consumed (mean ± SD) 1.8 ± 1.2 1.9 ± 1.1 1.8 ± 1.2 0.163
Walking (mins in the last week) (mean ± SD) 130.4 ± 161.0 116.2 ± 166.3 131.7 ± 160.5 0.006
Neighbourhood characteristics     
Slope mean (mean ± SD) 3.3 ± 1.7 3.0 ± 1.5 3.3 ± 1.7 <0.001
Slope mean (tertiles) (%)     
  - Tertile 1 (< 2.4) 33.3 41.1 32.6 <0.001
  - Tertile 2 (2.4 – 3.7) 33.3 31.3 33.5  
  - Tertile 3 (>3.7) 33.3 27.6 33.9  
Connectivity Z score (mean ± SD) −0.02 ± 1.0 −0.04 ± 0.9 −0.02 ± 1.0 0.490
Residential density Z score (mean ± SD) 0.00 ± 0.9 −0.01 ± 0.9 0.00 ± 1.0 0.817
Land Use Mix Z score (Recreation) (mean ± SD) 0.01 ± 1.0 0.03 ± 1.0 0.01 ± 1.0 0.517
Parks (mean ± SD) 4.46 ± 6.4 4.1 ± 6.0 4.5 ± 6.4 0.040
Retail destinations (mean ± SD) 11.2 ± 14.6 10.9 ± 13.0 11.3 ± 14.7 0.489
Health service destinations (mean ± SD) 24.9 ± 42.2 21.8 ± 39.2 25.2 ± 42.4 0.019
Recreation destinations (mean ± SD) 1.7 ± 2.6 1.6 ± 2.4 1.7 ± 2.6 0.204
Fast food/Takeaway destinations (mean ± SD) 13.0 ± 17.0 12.6 ± 15.6 13.0 ± 17.1 0.450
Healthy food destinations (mean ± SD) 0.90 ± 1.3 0.8 ± 1.2 0.9 ± 0.3 0.075
Larger food outlet destinations (mean ± SD) 1.6 ± 1.8 1.5 ± 1.7 1.6 ± 1.8 0.140
Restaurant/Café/Coffee destinations (mean ± SD) 4.4 ± 9.5 3.9 ± 8.8 4.5 ± 9.5 0.081
Other food destinations (mean ± SD) 5.2 ± 5.8 5.3 ± 5.5 5.2 ± 5.8 0.916
  1. Slope mean is percent slope.
  2. Unless otherwise specified, all variables are continuous; SD = Standard Deviation.
  3. Destinations: Count of destinations within 1600 m of participants’ homes (road service area):
  4. -Parks: parks and green spaces.
  5. - Retail destinations: Bike shop, Book shop, CD/DVD stores, Craft/Art supplies, Florist, General store, Gifts novelties souvenirs, Hardware store, News agent, Office stationery, Pharmacy, Photo shop, Post office, Sports store, Toys hobbies, Video store, Shopping centres, Pharmacy.
  6. - Health service destinations: Doctor, Medical centre.
  7. - Recreation destinations: Sports fields, Recreation centre, Swimming pool.
  8. - Fast food/Takeaway destinations: Fast food, Take away food.
  9. - Healthy food destinations: Health foods, Fruiterers and green grocers, Organic products, Vitamin products.
  10. - Larger food outlet destinations: Shopping centres, supermarkets and groceries, markets.
  11. - Restaurant/Café/Coffee destinations: Restaurants, cafes, coffee shops.
  12. - Other food destinations: Bakers, Butchers, Cake/Pastry shops, Confectionery, Delicatessens, Seafood shops, Food delicacies, Hotels/Pubs, Halal products, Icecream, Petrol stations, Road houses, Food and general stores.