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Table 2 Adjusted odds ratios for association of neighbourhood slope with self-reported diabetes: Life Course Built Environment and Health project, Perth, Western Australia (2003–2009)

From: People living in hilly residential areas in metropolitan Perth have less diabetes: spurious association or important environmental determinant?

   Level of adjustment  
Neighbourhood network slope measure Unadjusted Model 1 (socio-demographic) Model 2 (Model 1 + neighbourhood walkability) Model 3 (Model 2 + destinations) Model 4 (Model 3 + nutrition) Model 5 (Model 4 + walking)
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Slope mean (continuous) 0.89 (0.85-0.93) 0.89 (0.85-0.94) 0.89 (0.84-0.93) 0.89 (0.83-0.94) 0.89 (0.83-0.94) 0.87 (0.80-0.94)
Slope mean (tertiles) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
2 vs 1 0.74 (0.63-0.87) 0.75 (0.63-0.89) 0.75 (0.63-0.89) 0.78 (0.63-0.98) 0.78 (0.62-0.97) 0.72 (0.55-0.95)
3 vs 1 0.65 (0.55-0.76) 0.65 (0.54-0.78) 0.65 (0.54-0.78) 0.64 (0.51-0.80) 0.63 (0.51-0.80) 0.52 (0.39-0.69)
  1. OR: Odds ratio; CI: Confidence Interval.
  2. Model 1: Socio-demographic variables = age, gender, education, income.
  3. Model 2: Model 1 + Neighbourhood walkability variables = Connectivity Z score, Residential density Z score, Land Use Mix Z score (Recreation).
  4. Model 3: Model 2 + destinations.
  5. Model 4: Model 3 + nutrition (daily number of vegetables and fruits consumed).
  6. Model 5: Model 4 + walking (minutes of walking in the past week).
  7. Destinations: Count of destinations within 1600 m of participants’ homes (road service area):
  8. -Parks: parks and green spaces.
  9. - Retail destinations: Bike shop, Book shop, CD/DVD stores, Craft/Art supplies, Florist, General store, Gifts novelties souvenirs, Hardware store, News agent, Office stationery, Pharmacy, Photo shop, Post office, Sports store, Toys hobbies, Video store, Shopping centres, Pharmacy.
  10. - Health service destinations: Doctor, Medical centre.
  11. - Recreation destinations: Sports fields, Recreation centre, Swimming pool.
  12. - Fast food/Takeaway destinations: Fast food, Take away food.
  13. - Healthy food destinations: Health foods, Fruiterers and green grocers, Organic products, Vitamin products.
  14. - Larger food outlet destinations: Shopping centres, supermarkets and groceries, markets.
  15. - Restaurant/Café/Coffee destinations: Restaurants, cafes, coffee shops.
  16. - Other food destinations: Bakers, Butchers, Cake/Pastry shops, Confectionery, Delicatessens, Seafood shops, Food delicacies, Hotels/Pubs, Halal products, Icecream, Petrol stations, Road houses, Food and general stores.