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Table 2 Threshold models for influenza population loss

From: A geographic analysis of population density thresholds in the influenza pandemic of 1918–19

Coefficient estimate Model specification: District-specific intercepts and growth rates
  Threshold point estimate Alternate threshold
Time trend (β10)
Flu dummy (β20) −0.2965*** −0.3144***
(0.0126) (0.0172)
Low density * flu dummy (β30) 0.0694*** 0.0596***
(0.0246) (0.0221)
Time trend * flu dummy (β40)
Number of obs. 1188 1188
R 2 0.9964 0.9964
  KEY DEMOGRAPHIC PHENOMENA
Threshold population density 175 435
Range of possible thresholds (5% level of significance) 148--209 381--464
Number (percentage) of districts outside threshold range 110 (56%)
Population loss as % of population, low density districts −3.72% −3.51%
Population loss as % of population, high density districts −4.69% −5.85%
  1. Standard errors in parentheses.
  2. *** p < 0.01.
  3. †Multiple estimates, one corresponding to each district.