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Table 1 Univariate and multivariate regression of village prevalence of podoconiosis and soil characteristics analysed in this study

From: Modelling environmental factors correlated with podoconiosis: a geospatial study of non-filarial elephantiasis

Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
  Soil variable Estimate p- value OR    CI Estimate p- value OR    CI
Quartz 0.18 p < 0.001 1.21 (1.12,1.30) 0.14 p= 0.001 1.16 (1.06, 1.26)
Mica 0.09 p < 0.001 1.09 (1.07, 1.12) 0.09 p < 0.001 1.09 (1.05, 1.13)
Fe 2 O 3 −0.62 p < 0.001 0.54 (0.46, 0.63) NAa    
Particle size < 1μ m 0.04 p= 0.526 1.04 (0.92, 1.17) −0.15 p= 0.058 0.86 (0.73, 1.00)
Zirconium 0.02 p < 0.001 1.02 (1.02, 1.03) NAb    
Smectite 0.88 p= 0.022 2.42 (1.11, 4.94) 1.04 p= 0.007 2.76 (1.35, 5.73)
Kaolinite −0.09 p= 0.002 0.91 (0.86, 0.97) NAb    
  1. Note: Number of villages included = 108.
  2. CI = Confidence interval, RR = Risk Ratio.
  3. aIron oxide excluded: VIF of >10;
  4. bZirconium, and Kaolinite excluded: p- values greater than 0.050.