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Table 3 Impedance measures from compound and village to closest facility using six methods

From: Methods to measure potential spatial access to delivery care in low- and middle-income countries: a case study in rural Ghana

  Compound as origin, n = 47, 537 Village as origin, n = 433
Distance to closest health facility Mean (SD) Median (IQR) Range Mean (SD) Median (IQR) Range
Euclidean (km) 3.01 (4.47) 0.91 (0.49-4.16) 0.0038 - 23.88 6.19 (4.59) 5.74 (2.18-9.12) 0.026 - 23.44
Network distance(km) 3.91 (5.33) 1.47 (0.85-4.99) 0.018 - 35.33 8.15 (6.53) 7.31 (2.86-11.78) 0.036 - 40.99
Mechanized network time (hr) 0.26 (0.17) 0.22 (0.12-0.35) 0.0055 - 1.11 0.26 (0.18) 0.23 (0.12-0.35) 0.008 - 1.00
Non-mechanized network time (hr) 1.08 (1.32) 0.50 (0.29-1.31) 0.0085 - 8.90 2.09 (1.63) 1.89 (0.77-3.00) 0.013 - 10.26
Mechanized raster time (hr) 0.31 (0.27) 0.25 (0.14-0.40) 0 - 2.78 0.27 (0.27) 0.23 (0.13-0.32) 0 - 2.40
Non-mechanized raster time (hr) 1.20 (1.40) 0.67 (0.31-1.50) 0 - 9.16 2.18 (1.64) 1.97 (0.88-3.06) 0 - 9.81
Distance to CEmOC Mean (SD) Median (IQR) Range Mean (SD) Median (IQR) Range
Euclidean (km) 12.53 (14.1)  9.64 (1.49-17.18) 0.028 - 84.27 17.36 (13.45) 14.73 (8.57-23.31) 0.15 - 84.00
Network distance (km) 15.08 (16.14) 11.25 (2.32-21.76) 0.041 - 90.63 22.18 (17.11) 19.38 (10.86-28.66) 0.53 - 90.27
Mechanized network time (hr)  0.42 (0.25)  0.39 (0.23-0.57) 0.0055 - 1.40  0.50 (0.27)  0.45 (0.29-0.66) 0.016 - 1.35
Non-mechanized network time (hr)  3.87 (4.02)  2.95 (0.72-5.50) 0.017 - 22.76  5.61 (4.26)  4.93 (2.74-7.20) 0.13 - 22.59
Mechanized raster time (hr)  0.49 (0.35)  0.44 (0.23-0.68) 0 - 2.89  0.52 (0.34)  0.46 (0.27-0.68) 0.009 - 2.40
Non-mechanized raster time (hr)  4.05 (1.14)  3.18 (0.90-5.75) 0 - 23.79  5.78 (4.37)  5.01 (2.76-7.45) 0.10 - 23.26
  1. Note: n = 47,537 compounds in 173 villages for compound calculations, n = 433 villages for village calculations, compound and village statistics should not be compared due to different sample sizes. n = 64 delivery facilities; n = 8 CEmOC facilities.