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Table 8 Mean, standard deviation and effect of measures to closest facility on use of facility for delivery, n = 9,306 births

From: Methods to measure potential spatial access to delivery care in low- and middle-income countries: a case study in rural Ghana

Distance to closest delivery facility Compound as origin Village centroid as origin
  Mean (SD) OR (95% CI) p-value Mean (SD) OR (95% CI) p-value
Euclidean (km) 3.09 (4.67) 0.33 (0.27-0.40) <0.001 3.09 (4.68) 0.33 (0.27-0.40) <0.001
Network distance(km) 3.85 (5.39) 0.33 (0.26-0.42) <0.001 3.73 (5.40) 0.33 (0.26-0.43) <0.001
Mechanized network time (hr) 0.25 (0.17) 0.74 (0.55-0.98) 0.038 0.20 (0.17) 0.84 (0.60-1.17) 0.30
Non-mechanized network time (hr) 1.06 (1.34) 0.33 (0.26-0.43) <0.001 1.01 (1.34) 0.34 (0.27-0.43) <0.001
Mechanized raster time (hr) 0.28 (0.26) 0.71 (0.58-0.87) 0.001 0.23 (0.26) 0.91 (0.65-1.27) 0.57
Non-mechanized raster time (hr) 1.16 (1.43) 0.33 (0.26-0.43) <0.001 1.12 (1.42) 0.53 (0.28-0.45) <0.001
Distance to closest CEmOC Mean (SD) OR (95 % CI) p-value Mean (SD) OR (95 % CI) p-value
Euclidean (km) 12.40 (15.05) 0.41 (0.33-0.50) <0.001 12.34 (15.03) 0.41 (0.33-0.50) <0.001
Network distance (km) 14.94 (17.25) 0.45 (0.36-0.56) <0.001 14.81 (17.20) 0.45 (0.36-0.56) <0.001
Mechanized network time (hr)  0.41 (0.26) 0.50 (0.39-0.63) <0.001  0.37 (0.24) 0.53 (0.42-0.68) <0.001
Non-mechanized network time (hr)  3.83 (4.30) 0.45 (0.53-0.83) <0.001  3.78 (4.28) 0.45 (0.36-0.46) <0.001
Mechanized raster time (hr)  0.47 (0.35) 0.66 (0.32-0.72) <0.001  0.40 (0.32) 0.76 (0.54-1.08) 0.122
Non-mechanized raster time (hr)  4.00 (4.43) 0.45 (0.36-0.46) <0.001  3.93 (4.38) 0.46 (0.37-0.57) <0.001
  1. Note: all measures are standardized to mean = (approx.) 0 & standard deviation = 1.