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Table 2 Comparison of imputation methods by root mean squared error (RMSE) and bias from cross-validation

From: Missing in space: an evaluation of imputation methods for missing data in spatial analysis of risk factors for type II diabetes

Covariate N missing RMSE,mean (sd) Average bias Average width of CI % of CIs including zero bias
Mean imputation MVN CAR prior
    Poisson Binomial Poisson Binomial MVN CAR prior MVN CAR prior MVN CAR prior
% over 45yrs of age 3 49.7 108.7 (21.2) 109.6 (19.5) 46.3 (17.8) 46.2 (17.9) 0.012 0.041 0.897 0.345 100% 100%
% Overweight/obese 28 26.3 73.7 (22.3) 73.1 (20.6) 45.4 (18.5) 45.4 (18.4) 0.016 0.081 0.413 0.200 100% 75%
% Daily smokers 28 25.8 53.2 (18.1) 54.4 (19.3) 49.8 (21.1) 49.8 (21.0) 0.153 0.271 1.144 0.640 100% 68%
% Insufficient physical activity 28 36.7 90.7 (37.5) 91.4 (37.1) 67.0 (41.3) 67.1 (41.3) 0.048 0.047 0.535 0.246 100% 93%
% Adequate fruit intake 28 34.4 67.4 (14.3) 68.6 (14.7) 37.5 (22.7) 37.6 (22.7) 0.069 0.052 0.382 0.221 100% 91%
% Adequate vegetable intake 32 21.9 39.1 (18.5) 39.2 (18.4) 30.4 (19.6) 30.6 (19.9) 0.157 0.185 1.144 0.973 100% 94%
Overall - 32.5 71.1 (11.4) 72.7 (11.1) 46.1 (11.7) 46.1 (11.7) 0.076 0.113 0.752 0.438 100% 87%
  1. RMSE = root mean squared error, sd = standard deviation, MVN = Multivariate normal imputation, CAR prior = conditional autoregressive prior imputation; CI = 95% credible interval.