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Table 3 Differences in route characteristics between GIS and GPS routes for all routes, and by usual mode of travel to school

From: How well do modelled routes to school record the environments children are exposed to?: a cross-sectional comparison of GIS-modelled and GPS-measured routes to school

   GIS mean GPS mean Difference (GPS-GIS) 95% CI for diff Difference as% of GPS value p1 p2
      Lower Upper    
Length (m) Total N = 1191 4532.4 5739.5 1207.1 1031.3 1383.1 21.03% <0.01  
  By car N = 262 5219.2 6672.0 1452.8 922.7 1982.9 21.77% <0.01 <0.01
  By bus N = 475 6936.7 9032.3 2095.6 1818.1 2373.0 23.20% <0.01  
  By bicycle N = 62 2486.7 2868.4 381.7 173.5 589.8 13.31% <0.01  
  On foot N = 392 1483.4 1580.4 97.0 −61.1 255.3 6.14% <0.01  
% of route on busy (A&B) roads Total N = 1191 25.816 26.170 0.354 −1.042 1.750 1.35% 0.925  
  By car N = 262 34.178 30.477 −3.701 −6.998 −0.404 −12.14% 0.073 <0.01
  By bus N = 475 30.240 35.588 5.348 3.003 7.692 15.03% <0.01  
  By bicycle N = 62 23.253 18.829 −4.423 −12.314 3.467 −23.49% 0.915  
  On foot N = 392 15.270 13.039 −2.230 −4.015 −0.446 −17.10% 0.010  
Number of food outlets on route Total N = 1191 6.205 6.530 0.325 −0.134 0.784 4.98% 0.938  
  By car N = 262 7.767 9.099 1.332 0.040 2.624 14.64% 0.359 <0.01
  By bus N = 475 6.309 7.368 1.059 0.283 1.835 14.37% <0.01  
  By bicycle N = 62 4.323 3.726 −0.597 −2.069 0.876 −16.02% 0.448  
  On foot N = 392 5.332 4.240 −1.092 −1.587 −0.597 −25.75% <0.01  
Number of unhealthy food outlets on route Total N = 1191 2.783 2.934 0.150 −0.071 0.371 5.12% 0.016  
  By car N = 262 3.408 3.901 0.492 −0.107 1.091 12.62% 0.546 <0.01
  By bus N = 475 2.720 3.139 0.419 0.027 0.810 13.35% 0.178  
  By bicycle N = 62 2.323 2.306 −0.016 −1.002 0.970 −0.70% 0.526  
  On foot N = 392 2.515 2.138 −0.378 −0.579 −0.176 −17.66% <0.01  
Number of physical activity facilities on route Total N = 1191 1.823 2.251 0.428 0.322 0.535 19.02% <0.01  
  By car N = 262 1.656 2.653 0.996 0.707 1.285 37.55% <0.01 <0.01
  By bus N = 475 2.423 2.844 0.421 0.267 0.575 14.80% <0.01  
  By bicycle N = 62 0.661 1.371 0.710 0.469 0.950 51.76% <0.01  
  On foot N = 392 1.390 1.403 0.013 −0.154 0.179 0.91% 0.668  
  1. All difference are GPS - GIS therefore positive values = more on GPS route, and negative values = more on GIS route. p1 p for differences between GIS and GPS values within group (Wilcoxon paired rank test). p2 p for difference in differences between groups (Kruskal-Wallis equality-of-populations rank test). for all p values, bold font indicates p < 0.05, italic font indicates p > 0.05.