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Table 4 Results from multilevel ordinal logistic regression models of differences in route lengths, and percentage overlap between GIS and GPS routes

From: How well do modelled routes to school record the environments children are exposed to?: a cross-sectional comparison of GIS-modelled and GPS-measured routes to school

  Adjustment for straight-line distance only   Differences in Length
% of GPS route within 50 m GIS route buffer
Best fit Univariate associations Best fit
    95% CI    95% CI    95% CI    95% CI  
   OR Lower Upper   OR Lower Upper   OR Lower Upper   OR Lower Upper  
Straight-line distance   2.25 2.02 2.52 ** 1.37 1.16 1.62 ** 1.11 1.01 1.20 * 0.82 0.72 0.94 **
Journey type (ref to sch) From school 1.14 0.85 1.54       0.76 0.56 1.02      
Sex (ref male) Female 0.41 0.23 0.74 *      3.44 2.11 5.62 **     
Travel mode (ref car) Bus 11.32 4.96 25.86 ** 8.32 3.08 22.50 ** 1.02 0.54 1.92   1.93 1.00 3.72  
Bike 2.40 0.88 6.54   0.55 0.17 1.80   1.33 0.45 3.90   2.79 1.07 7.31 *
Foot 0.06 0.03 0.13 ** 0.15 0.06 0.36 ** 0.54 0.29 1.01   1.42 0.63 3.19  
Home location (ref urban) Town & Fringe 1.54 0.80 2.96   0.75 0.34 1.64   0.42 0.25 0.72 ** 0.19 0.11 0.35 **
Village etc. 3.49 1.87 6.49 ** 4.62 1.74 12.22 ** 0.77 0.47 1.29   0.26 0.10 0.74 *
School location relative to school (ref no diff) School less urban 0.49 0.15 1.63       0.08 0.04 0.17 ** 0.98 0.35 2.79  
School more urban 2.27 1.30 3.96 **      3.26 2.03 5.26 ** 3.98 1.49 10.63 **
Variance partition coefficients      Variance VPCa       Variance VPCa  
 Level 1 (Route)       3.29 32.10%       3.29 16.72%  
 Level 2 (Participant)       6.24 60.91%       12.41 63.09%  
 Level 3 (School)       0.72 7.00%       3.97 20.19%  
  1. The distributions of both outcome variables did not allow for linear modelling, so both were banded into tertiles. Outcomes are presented as odds ratios for moving up a tertile category. Difference in Length Tertiles; GIS longer, GPS up to 600 m longer, GPS >600 m longer.% overlap tertiles: 0.1%-33%, >33%- < 73%, ≥73%-100%. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, aVariance Partition Coefficient.