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Table 2 GPS-based activity space compactness of Walk The Talk Study participants (n = 95) by sociodemographic group and resource characteristics

From: Generating GPS activity spaces that shed light upon the mobility habits of older adults: a descriptive analysis

Sociodemographic group n SDE compactness (0 to 1) MCP compactness (0 to 1) DPA compactness (0 to 1)
   Mean (SD) p a Mean (SD) p a Mean (SD) p a
All 95 0.77 (0.15)   0.75 (0.11)   0.34 (0.21)  
Sex    0.0506   0.0919   0.6597
 Female 63 0.75 (0.15)   0.74 (0.11)   0.33 (0.21)  
 Male 32 0.81 (0.12)   0.77 (0.09)   0.35 (0.21)  
Age (years)    0.9822   0.9412   0.2115
 65-69 26 0.77 (0.14)   0.75 (0.10)   0.29 (0.21)  
 70-74 29 0.77 (0.16)   0.74 (0.12)   0.31 (0.18)  
 75-79 26 0.77 (0.15)   0.74 (0.11)   0.40 (0.23)  
 80+ 14 0.79 (0.13)   0.76 (0.09)   0.38 (0.21)  
Race    0.3052   0.3293   0.1429
 Non-white 18 0.74 (0.12)   0.73 (0.11)   0.41 (0.27)  
 White 77 0.78 (0.15)   0.75 (0.11)   0.33 (0.19)  
Education    0.1546   0.0172   0.4758
 Secondary school or less 26 0.77 (0.16)   0.74 (0.11)   0.30 (0.11)  
 Some or completed trade/technical school or college 36 0.81 (0.12)   0.79 (0.08)   0.37 (0.27)  
 Some university or higher 33 0.74 (0.16)   0.71 (0.12)   0.34 (0.19)  
Marital status    0.8909   0.4912   0.9096
 Not married 88 0.77 (0.15)   0.75 (0.11)   0.34 (0.21)  
 Married 7 0.78 (0.15)   0.78 (0.10)   0.35 (0.25)  
Living with someone else    0.8379   0.5398   0.8590
 No 80 0.77 (0.14)   0.75 (0.11)   0.34 (0.21)  
 Yes 15 0.77 (0.16)   0.76 (0.10)   0.33 (0.21)  
Dog Ownership    0.9119   0.7896   0.6049
 No 84 0.77 (0.14)   0.75 (0.11)   0.34 (0.20)  
 Yes 11 0.77 (0.19)   0.76 (0.12)   0.37 (0.29)  
Walkabilityb    0.0721   0.0325   0.0244
 Car dependent (0–49) 19 0.77 (0.13)   0.73 (0.11)   0.24 (0.14)  
 Somewhat walkable (50–69) 24 0.83 (0.13)   0.79 (0.08)   0.31 (0.18)  
 Very walkable (70–89) 27 0.77 (0.14)   0.77 (0.09)   0.36 (0.23)  
 Walker’s paradise (90–100) 25 0.72 (0.16)   0.70 (0.13)   0.42 (0.23)  
Length of time in neighborhood    0.0659   0.4341   0.5547
 ≤ 2 years 27 0.77 (0.15)   0.75 (0.10)   0.29 (0.18)  
 Between 2 and up to 6 years 28 0.76 (0.12)   0.74 (0.11)   0.36 (0.24)  
 Between 6 and up to 9 years 17 0.71 (0.16)   0.72 (0.11)   0.34 (0.21)  
 > 9 years 23 0.83 (0.14)   0.77 (0.11)   0.37 (0.21)  
Valid driver’s license    0.2126   0.9521   0.0175
 No 23 0.74 (0.14)   0.75 (0.10)   0.43 (0.26)  
 Yes 72 0.78 (0.15)   0.75 (0.11)   0.31 (0.19)  
Access to a vehicle    0.5099   0.7018   0.0007
 No 37 0.76 (0.15)   0.75 (0.11)   0.43 (0.25)  
 Yes 56 0.78 (0.14)   0.74 (0.11)   0.28 (0.16)  
Social support/companionship to go outside    0.5297   0.9556   0.5838
 No 44 0.78 (0.15)   0.75 (0.11)   0.35 (0.21)  
 Yes 51 0.76 (0.14)   0.75 (0.10)   0.33 (0.21)  
Physical support to go outside    0.3954   0.3574   0.1288
 No 51 0.78 (0.14)   0.76 (0.10)   0.37 (0.22)  
 Yes 44 0.76 (0.15)   0.74 (0.11)   0.31 (0.19)  
Like to walk outsidec    0.0021   0.0037   0.9144
 Less than very much 28 0.84 (0.11)   0.80 (0.08)   0.34 (0.22)  
 Very much 67 0.74 (0.15)   0.73 (0.11)   0.34 (0.21)  
Confidence walking outsidec    0.8907   0.7597   0.4028
 Less than very much 20 0.78 (0.13)   0.74 (0.09)   0.38 (0.26)  
 Very much 75 0.77 (0.15)   0.75 (0.11)   0.33 (0.19)  
Falls in past 6 months    0.8087   0.7402   0.7583
 No 75 0.77 (0.15)   0.75 (0.11)   0.34 (0.21)  
 Yes 20 0.77 (0.15)   0.74 (0.11)   0.33 (0.20)  
Use of a mobility aid for walking    0.3118   0.9095   0.1527
 No 78 0.78 (0.14)   0.75 (0.11)   0.35 (0.22)  
 Yes 17 0.74 (0.15)   0.75 (0.11)   0.27 (0.12)  
  1. Abbreviations: Standard Deviation (SD), Standard Deviation Ellipse using one standard deviation (SDE), Minimum Convex Polygon (MCP), Daily Path Area using a 200-meter buffer (DPA).
  2. ap-value from one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) across sociodemographic and resource categories.
  3. bMeasured by Street Smart Walk Score for home address.
  4. cLess than very much (1–4 on a 5-point scale); Very much (5 on a 5-point scale).