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Table 1 Percentage agreement and Kappa statistics for all SPOTLIGHT-VAT items, presented by category

From: The SPOTLIGHT virtual audit tool: a valid and reliable tool to assess obesogenic characteristics of the built environment

Category Inter observer reliability Intra observer reliability Criterion validity
% Agreement Kappa % Agreement Kappa % Agreement Kappa
Presence of walking related items:* 92.6 0.740 95.1 0.804 97.0 0.856
Type of street (4 categories) 99.2 0.980 100 1.000 97.7 0.938
Presence of sidewalks (yes/no) 89.8 0.764 81.3 0.589 99.2 0.983
Condition of sidewalk (3 categories) 85.9 0.724 95.3 0.907 91.4 0.830
Pedestrian crossing available (yes/no) 95.3 0.642 96.9 0.761 96.9 0.761
Type of pedestrian crossing (if available) 94.5 0.589 96.9 0.765 96.9 0.766
Presence of streetlights (yes/no) 90.6 N/A** 100 N/A 100 N/A
Presence of cycling related items:* 87.1 0.628 95.3 0.849 94.4 0.823
Type of street (4 categories) 99.2 0.980 100 1.000 97.7 0.938
Presence of bicycle lanes (yes/no) 99.2 1.000 99.2 0.973 98.4 0.947
The speed limit in this segment 59.4 0.442 98.4 0.975 96.9 0.950
Obstacles present on bicycle lanes (yes/no) 89.1 0.085 93.8 0.531 95.3 0.557
Do cars form an obstacle on cycle lane (yes/no) 82.8 0.523 82.8 0.588 78.9 0.466
Traffic calming devices present (yes/no) 68.8 0.394 89.8 0.775 89.8 0.777
Public bicycle renting facilities (yes/no) 99.2 N/A 100 1.000 100 1.000
Type of bicycle lanes 99.2 0.973 98.4 0.948 98.4 0.949
Presence of public transport:* 98.9 0.906 99.2 0.946 98.9 0.923
Presence of bus/tram stop (yes/no) 97.7 0.811 98.4 0.892 97.7 0.845
Presence of railway/underground station (yes/no) 100 1.000 100 1.000 100 1.000
Aesthetics:* 78.6 0.440 91.7 0.654 87.3 0.539
Green/water area visible (yes/no) 69.5 0.393 90.6 0.793 88.3 0.740
Residential gardens visible (yes/no) 88.3 0.756 96.1 0.919 96.1 0.919
Rating of most residential buildings (3 categories) 85.2 0.416 93.8 0.796 92.2 0.769
Abandoned or vacant building/area visible (yes/no) 92.2 N/A 96.1 0.741 91.4 0.375
Maintenance of green areas (3 categories) 54.7 0.128 93.8 0.594 85.9 0.347
Condition of sidewalks (3 categories) 85.9 0.724 95.3 0.907 91.4 0.830
Presence of graffiti (yes/no) 90.6 0.306 89.1 0.590 82.8 0.454
Presence of litter (yes/no) 46.1 0.010 76.6 0.520 60.2 0.168
Presence of trees (yes/no) 95.3 0.786 93.8 0.698 97.7 0.883
Land use-mix:* 80.1 0.285 91.4 0.762 91.1 0.740
Presence of residential buildings (yes/no) 85.2 0.416 94.5 0.818 94.5 0.829
Type of residential buildings (5 categories) 72.7 0.000 89.1 0.836 90.6 0.861
% of non-residential buildings (5 categories) 82.5 0.440 90.5 0.633 88.1 0.531
Presence of grocery stores:* 99.2 0.697 100 1.000 99.4 0.681
Supermarket (yes/no) 98.4 N/A 100 1.000 99.2 0.663
Local food shop (yes/no) 97.7 0.393 100 1.000 99.2 0.886
Street food market (yes/no) 100 N/A 100 N/A 100 N/A
Wine/liquor store (yes/no) 100 N/A 100 N/A 100 N/A
Convenience store/small grocery store (yes/no) 100 1.000 100 1.000 98.4 0.494
Presence of food outlets:* 99.2 0.579 99.7 0.887 99.9 0.887
Restaurant (yes/no) 98.4 N/A 99.2 N/A 100 N/A
Fast food restaurant (yes/no) 98.4 0.494 99.2 0.663 99.2 0.663
Take away restaurant (yes/no) 99.2 N/A 100 1.000 100 1.000
On-street vendors of food (yes/no) 100 N/A 100 N/A 100 N/A
Café/bar (yes/no) 99.2 0.663 100 1.000 100 1.000
Shopping mall (yes/no) 100 N/A 100 N/A 100 N/A
Presence of physical activity facilities:* 96.4 0.484 99.0 0.883 97.1 0.527
Indoor recreational facility (yes/no) 100 1.000 100 1.000 99.2 0.663
Outdoor recreational facility (yes/no) 96.9 -0.012 100 1.000 96.9 0.317
Public park (yes/no) 92.2 0.465 96.9 0.650 95.3 0.602
Overall*** 91.5 0.595 96.4 0.848 95.6 0.747
  1. *Mean results of Percentage Agreement and Kappa for reliability and validity tests per category.
  2. **N/A: not applicable.
  3. ***Mean results of Percentage Agreement and Kappa for reliability and validity tests summarized for all categories.