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Table 2 Estimation results for the conventional multilevel model and the spatially filtered multilevel model

From: A spatially filtered multilevel model to account for spatial dependency: application to self-rated health status in South Korea

Variables Null model Level-1 multilevel model Level-2 multilevel model Spatially filtered multilevel model
Individual-level variables  
Sex (male:0; female:1) - – 49.88*** – 49.65*** – 49.69***
Monthly household income 0.10*** 0.10*** 0.09***
Employment status (employed:0; unemployed:1) –134.10*** –134.90*** –135.30***
Perceived levels of stress (high:0; low:1) 154.60*** 155.60*** 155.70***
Neighborhood–level variables     
Korean Deprivation Index (KDI) –23.82* –15.51*
The number of doctors per 1000 people 4.85* 2.60*
Degree of the Local Governments’ Financial Independence (LGFI) 0.98 0.16
Random effects     
Variance at individual–level 66725 52226 52225 56013
Between monthly household income variance 0.0039 0.0036 0.0011
Variance at neighborhood–level 1591 1102 1062 555
Constant 785.31*** 761.40*** 747.00*** 770.70***
Eigenvector selection 8 eigenvectors
Moran’s I of neighborhood–level residuals 0.101* 0.005
AIC 861942 830665 830650 830549
Log–likelihood – 447328 – 415324 – 415314 – 415254
  1. ***p < =0.001 *p < =0.05.