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Table 1 Demographics and area characteristics of 408 residents from Spijkenisse within four buffer zones by frailty level

From: Characteristics of residential areas and transportational walking among frail and non-frail Dutch elderly: does the size of the area matter?

Buffer size   Total (N = 408) Non-frail (N = 307) Frail (N = 101)
  Sex (% female) 52.9 45.9 74.3**
   Mean ± sd Mean ± sd Mean ± sd
  Age (years; range 65–94) 75.1 ± 6.6 73.7 ± 5.7 79.4 ± 7.3**
  Total walking time in last 2 weeks (in minutes) 389.9 ± 579.0 446.2 ± 634.6 218.8 ± 305.0**
  Average total walking time per transportational walk (in minutes) 35.3 ± 32.1 38.8 ± 33.7 24.7 ± 23.9**
400 m Number of observed streets 39 ± 14 38 ± 14 39 ± 14
  Aesthetics (range 0–22) 11.9 ± 0.9 11.9 ± 0.9 11.9 ± 0.9
  Functional features (range 0–14) 4.8 ± 1.5 4.7 ± 1.5 5.2 ± 1.5*
  Safety (range 0–16) 6.1 ± 1.0 6.1 ± 1.0 6.1 ± 1.0
  Destinations (range 0-∞) 9.4 ± 8.9 8.6 ± 11.9 11.9 ± 10.9*
800 m Number of observed streets 133 ± 42 132 ± 42 136 ± 43
  Aesthetics (range 0–22) 11.8 ± 0.7 11.8 ± 0.7 11.8 ± 0.7
  Functional features (range 0–14) 4.5 ± 1.0 4.4 ± 1.0 4.7 ± 1.0*
  Safety (range 0–16) 5.9 ± 0.8 5.9 ± 0.8 6.0 ± 0.7
  Destinations (range 0-∞) 26.7 ± 16.7 25.2 ± 16.0 30.9 ± 18.1*
1200 m Number of observed streets 274 ± 90 273 ± 91 276 ± 87
  Aesthetics (range 0–22) 11.7 ± 0.6 11.7 ± 0.6 11.8 ± 0.7
  Functional features (range 0–14) 4.4 ± 0.8 4.4 ± 0.8 4.5 ± 0.8
  Safety (range 0–16) 5.9 ± 0.7 5.9 ± 0.7 5.9 ± 0.7
  Destinations (range 0-∞) 51.0 ± 24.8 49.5 ± 24.2 55.6 ± 26.1*
1600 m Number of observed streets 454 ± 147 453 ± 149 457 ± 143
  Aesthetics (range 0–22) 11.7 ± 0.5 11.7 ± 0.5 11.7 ± 0.5
  Functional features (range 0–14) 4.3 ± 0.6 4.3 ± 0.7 4.4 ± 0.6
  Safety (range 0–16) 5.8 ± 0.5 5.8 ± 0.5 5.9 ± 0.5
  Destinations (range 0-∞) 82.1 ± 32.4 80.5 ± 32.6 87.0 ± 31.4
  1. **p < 0.001; *p < 0.05 (=significant higher score as compared to non-frail participants).