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Table 4 Predicted BMI z-score per tertile of environmental exposure, in home, school and route settings

From: Associations between BMI and home, school and route environmental exposures estimated using GPS and GIS: do we see evidence of selective daily mobility bias in children?

  β co-efficients for BMI z-score a
  Tertile Home 95% CI School 95% CI Modelled journey 95% CI Actual journey 95% CI
All food outlets 1 (least exposed) REF n/a REF n/a REF n/a REF n/a
  2 0.010 −0.577, 0.596 −0.246 −0.874, 0.382 −0.246 −0.885, 0.393 0.157 −0.435, 0.748
  3 0.425 −0.163, 1.013 0.136 −0.529, 0.802 −0.041 −0.611, 0.529 −0.154 −0.756, 0.449
Takeaway food outlets 1 (least exposed) REF n/a REF n/a REF n/a REF n/a
  2 −0.154 −0.743, 0.435 −0.246 −0.874, 0.382 −0.455 −1.143, 0.233 0.324 −0.288, 0.937
  3 0.347 −0.244, 0.939 0.136 −0.529, 0.802 −0.093 −0.630, 0.445 0.153 −0.441, 0.746
Physical activity facilities 1 (least exposed) REF n/a REF n/a REF n/a REF n/a
  2 0.128 −0.477, 0.732 −0.763 −1.484, −0.042 0.325 −0.200, 0.851 0.341 −0.232, 0.913
  3 0.359 −0.233, 0.950 −0.398 −0.938, 0.143 0.906 0.317, 1.494
Green space 1 (least exposed) REF n/a REF n/a REF n/a REF n/a
  2 −0.315 −0.897, 0.268 0.267 −0.283, 0.816 −0.253 −0.854, 0.347 −0.040 −0.627, 0.546
  3 −0.183 −0.790, 0.424 0.892** 0.269, 1.515 −0.296 −0.876, 0.284 −0.320 −0.913, 0.274
Density of fatal road traffic accidents 1 (least exposed) REF n/a REF n/a REF n/a REF n/a
  2 −0.109 −0.719, 0.501 −0.137 −0.627, 0.353 0.033 −0.494, 0.561 0.323 −0.262, 0.908
  3 0.366 −0.238, 0.970
Proportion of roads that are major roads 1 (most walkable) REF n/a REF n/a REF n/a REF n/a
  2 1.002 0.192, 1.812 0.507 −0.099, 1.114 −0.116 −0.708, 0.476 −0.305 −0.902, 0.292
  3 0.062 −0.474, 0.598 0.231 −0.434, 0.897 0.187 −0.426, 0.800 0.133 −0.462, 0.728
Effective walkable area/route length ratio (for journeys) 1 (least walkable) REF n/a REF n/a REF n/a REF n/a
  2 0.105 −0.500, 0.710 −0.625 −1.207, −0.044 −0.423 −1.019, 0.172 0.126 −0.474, 0.726
  3 0.610** 0.021, 1.200 −0.892** −1.515, −0.269 −0.447 −1.053, 0.160 −0.026 −0.640, 0.588
Connected node ratio 1 (least connected) REF n/a REF n/a
  2 0.232 −0.364, 0.828 −0.140 −0.765, 0.485
  3 0.302 −0.285, 0.889 −0.005 −0.657, 0.647
Herfindahl−Hirschmann Index 1 (least mixed) REF n/a REF n/a REF n/a REF n/a
  2 0.360 −0.244, 0.963 0.139 −0.460, 0.738 0.597 −0.007, 1.201 0.578 0.000, 1.156
  3 0.493 −0.101, 1.086 −0.441 −1.102, 0.221 0.362 −0.230, 0.955 0.307 −0.276, 0.889
  1. **p < 0.05, using tests for trend based on modelling continuous environmental exposures.
  2. aβ co-efficients represent BMI z-scores across tertiles of environmental exposure, relative to the least exposed tertile 1. All models control for parental education level and sex of child.