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Table 2 Correlation between socio-economic subgroups and mean annual exposure to NO2 in Scania, Sweden (2001). The correlation coefficients for those born in OC (Other Country) and those with a low level of education are not presented since they are the exact inverse of the correlation coefficients for those born in Sweden, and those who are highly educated, respectively. The proportion with:"high level of education and concentration of NO2" is calculated for the age-group 25–64 years.

From: Are associations between socio-economic characteristics and exposure to air pollution a question of study area size? An example from Scania, Sweden

Spearman's correlation coefficient and p-value
Area Proportion born in Sweden and concentration of NO2 Proportion with high level of education and concentration of NO2
Scania Correlation coefficient -0.9 0.2
  p-value <0.001 <0.001
All 5 cities together Correlation coefficient -0.5 -0.4
  p-value <0.001 <0.001
Malmö Correlation coefficient -0.8 0.1
  p-value <0.001 <0.001
Helsingborg Correlation coefficient 0.1 0.2
  p-value <0.001 <0.001
Lund Correlation coefficient 0.6 0.8
  p-value <0.001 <0.001
Kristianstad Correlation coefficient -0.3 0.2
  p-value <0.001 <0.001
Trelleborg Correlation coefficient 0.1 0.5
  p-value <0.001 <0.001