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Table 2 Five levels of indicators for planning

From: Epidemiological geomatics in evaluation of mine risk education in Afghanistan: introducing population weighted raster maps

Level 0: Descriptive frequencies (percentages, rates) and characteristics (averages, modal values) provide an overview of the occurrence a given risk-taking behaviour, or the coverage of a given health programme.
Level 1: Individual risk estimates (unbiased odds ratios) reflect the average risk of an individual "exposed" to a given mine awareness programme, in comparison with the average unexposed individual.
Level 2: The expected gains are the number of cases that can be "saved" – after taking into account all the other factors that could explain the association – by a given intervention.
Level 3: Combinations of programmes can produce additive or multiplicative gains, which are enormously important in estimating the cost options for planners.
Level 4: Since is it rarely possible to invest fully in all programme options simultaneously, this models programme structure based on partial investment. It also anticipates partial uptake of the programme and local cost variability