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Table 2 Base and constant values used for each life stage of C. tarsalis and C. pipiens derived from existing studies. Base (°C) is the minimum temperature at which mosquitoes in each stage grow, and Constant (dd) is the required amount of degree-days (product of excess temperature above the Base and such days). *: Anautogenous form, **: Autogenous form

From: Predicting outbreaks: a spatial risk assessment of West Nile virus in British Columbia

C. tarsalis
Stage Base(°C) Constant(dd) R2 Remarks Location Source
Egg 5.9 37.2 0.98 lab California [65]
  9.0 20.9 0.87 fluctuating California [65]
Larva 7.9 162.6 0.96 lab California [65]
  6.2 173.0 0.96 fluctuating California [65]
  -40.1 555.6 0.87 fluctuating California [65]
  12.7 110.4 0.98 lab California [66]
Pupa 11.6 29.3 0.99 lab California [65]
  189.4 -311.5 0.02 fluctuating California [65]
  -76.3 211.9 0.95 fluctuating California [65]
  11.7 28.9 1.00 lab California [66]
Ovarian development 4.9 76.9 0.96 lab California [63]
C. pipiens
Stage Base(°C) Constant(dd) R2 Remarks Location Source
Egg 7.4 30.8 0.96 water Ontario [36]
  3.7 35.8 0.90 water, fluctuating* England [67]
  6.9 29.1 0.92 water, fluctuating** England [67]
Larva 9.0 107.6 0.85 lab California [66]
  4.7 119.2 0.43 lab* England [67]
  1.7 171.5 0.38 lab** England [67]
  9.5 160.0 0.89   Russia? [68]
Pupa 8.1 34.2 0.85 lab California [66]
  8.3 55.9 0.58 lab* England [67]
  7.1 57.8 0.61 lab** England [67]
Ovarian development 9.6 57.8 0.92 field Ontario [36]
  10.0 70.9 0.92 lab Ontario [36]
  9.1 78.7 0.93 lab Baltimore [37]