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Table 5 Associations between proximal crime exposures and adverse birth outcomes among non-Hispanic white women*

From: Violent crime exposure classification and adverse birth outcomes: a geographically-defined cohort study

  Preterm birth (<37 weeks gestation & <3888 g) Low birth weight (<2500 g)
  Not adjusted Individual covariates Area-level covariates Fully adjusted Not adjusted Individual covariates Area-level covariates Fully adjusted
Count of violent crimes within 1/2 mile of maternal address (White non-Hispanic cutpoints used in model)
Low (0 – 6) Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent
Medium (7 – 21) 1.0 (0.8, 1.4) 1.0 (0.8, 1.3) 1.0 (0.8, 1.3) 1.0 (0.8, 1.3) 1.1 (0.8, 1.5) 1.0 (0.7, 1.4) 1.0 (0.7, 1.4) 1.0 (0.7, 1.4)
High (22 – 562) 1.2 (1.0, 1.6) 1.1 (0.9, 1.5) 1.1 (0.8, 1.6) 1.1 (0.8, 1.5) 1.2 (0.9, 1.7) 1.1 (0.8, 1.5) 1.1 (0.8, 1.7) 1.0 (0.7, 1.5)
Distance (in feet) from maternal address to nearest violent crime (White non-Hispanic cutpoints used in model)
Close (0–512) Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent
Medium (513–1239) 1.0 (0.8, 1.3) 1.1 (0.8, 1.4) 1.1 (0.8, 1.4) 1.1 (0.9, 1.5) 0.8 (0.6, 1.1) 0.9 (0.7, 1.2) 0.8 (0.6, 1.1) 0.9 (0.7, 1.2)
Far (<15,617) 1.0 (0.8, 1.3) 1.1 (0.9, 1.4) 1.1 (0.8, 1.4) 1.2 (0.9, 1.5) 0.8 (0.6, 1.1) 0.9 (0.7, 1.3) 0.9 (0.6, 1.2) 1.0 (0.7, 1.3)
  1. * Unadjusted, individual (maternal age, education), neighborhood (area-level deprivation), and fully-adjusted (individual and area-level covarites) odds ratios [OR] (95% Confidence Intervals [95% CI]) of preterm birth and low birth weight for 1/2 mile violent crime count and distance to nearest violent crime among non-Hispanic white women living in Raleigh NC.