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Table 6 Associations between area-level violent crime and adverse birth outcomes among non-Hispanic white women*

From: Violent crime exposure classification and adverse birth outcomes: a geographically-defined cohort study

  Preterm birth (<37 weeks gestation & <3888 g) Low birth weight (<2500 g)
  Not adjusted Individual covariates Area-level covariates Fully adjusted Not adjusted Individual covariates Area-level covariates Fully adjusted
Block group violent crime count
Low (0 – 12) Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent
Med (13 – 50) 1.0 (0.8, 1.2) 1.0 (0.8, 1.2) 1.0 (0.8, 1.2) 0.9 (0.8, 1.2) 1.0 (0.8, 1.3) 1.0 (0.8, 1.3) 1.0 (0.8, 1.3) 1.0 (0.8, 1.3)
High (52 – 378) 1.2 (0.9, 1.6) 1.1 (0.8, 1.4) 1.1 (0.8, 1.5) 1.1 (0.8, 1.5) 1.2 (0.9, 1.6) 1.0 (0.8, 1.5) 1.0 (0.7, 1.5) 1.0 (0.7, 1.4)
Block group violent crime rate (count/population * 1000)
Low (0 – 5.7) Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent
Medium (6.1–16.3) 1.0 (0.8, 1.2) 0.9 (0.7, 1.2) 1.0 (0.8, 1.2) 1.0 (0.7, 1.2) 1.0 (0.8, 1.3) 1.0 (0.7, 1.3) 1.0 (0.7, 1.4) 1.0 (0.7, 1.3)
High (<204.7) 1.4 (1.1, 1.9) 1.3 (1.0, 1.8) 1.3 (0.9, 1.9) 1.3 (0.9, 1.9) 1.7 (1.2, 2.4) 1.5 (1.1, 2.2) 1.6 (1.0, 2.4) 1.5 (1.0, 2.3)
  1. * Unadjusted, individual (maternal age, education), neighborhood (area-level deprivation), and fully-adjusted (individual and area-level covarites) odds ratios [OR] (95% Confidence Intervals [95% CI]) of preterm birth and low birth weight for area-level violent crime count and violent crime rate among non-Hispanic white women living in Raleigh NC.