Global test of location using deviance. We test the global nullhypothesis of no association between location and disease status using the difference in deviance of models with and without the location term. We estimate the distribution of the statistic under the null hypothesis by permutation. The approximate chi-square distribution is also shown. The observed value of the deviance statistic is highly significant for the crude model (p < .0001) indicating that location is important, i.e., the crude map is not flat.