Distance and directional bias between geocoded address coordinates for multi-stage and single-stage geocoding methods: This figure shows one dot for each address geocoded by both methods, with reference circles at 0.5 and 1.0 km. The multi-stage geocoded address coordinates was centered as a reference, and the dots used to show the relative position of the single-stage address coordinates for the same address. Dots close to the middle (0,0) represent small discrepancy-distances and high concordance between the two methods. Dots directly above the center had single-stage geocoded address coordinates further north than their multi-stage coordinates. Dots randomly scattered in all directions would indicate no directional bias, whereas an off-center cluster of dots would indicate systematic bias between the two methods. Addresses with discrepancy distances greater than 2 km were not included in this figure (N = 78).