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Table 1 Intensity of thermal fluence by thermal effect type

From: Vulnerability of populations and the urban health care systems to nuclear weapon attack – examples from four American cities

Type of Thermal Effect 20 Kt Device Thermal Fluence Calories/cm2 550 Kt Device Thermal Fluence Calories/cm2
Mass Fires Virtually Certain 25 25
Mass Fires Likely 13 13
Mass Fires Possible 10 10
3rd Degree Burns (50% chance) 7.6 9.4
2nd Degree Burns (50% chance) 5.0 6.2
1st Degree Burns (50% chance) 2.5 3.1