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Table 1 SES characteristics and Salmonella infection at the block group level. Socioeconomic and demographic predictors of Salmonella infections at the block group level in a tri-county area of Michigan (1997–2006): results of a multivariable Poisson regression model. (n = 3,419)

From: The role of neighborhood level socioeconomic characteristics in Salmonella infections in Michigan (1997–2007): Assessment using geographic information system

Variable Block groups # (%) Un-adjusted RR (95% CI) Adjusted RR (95% CI)
Education attainment (aged ≥ 25 years) at block group level    
   College degree and above 581 (16.99) Reference Reference
   High school degree, some college education but no degree 2667 (78.01) 0.79 (0.73, 0.86) 0.84 (0.76, 0.92)*
   None to less than a high school degree 171 (5.00) 0.74 (0.61, 0.90) 0.71 (0.65, 1.00)*
Annual median household income at block group level (highest to lowest)    
   4th quartile (≥ $ 60,000) 965 (28.22) Reference Reference
   3rd quartile ($ 47,000 – < $60,000) 734 (21.47) 0.94 (0.86, 1.35) 0.99 (0.89, 1.10)
   2nd quartile ($33,000 – < $ 47,000) 880 (25.74) 0.80 (0.73, 0.88) 0.86 (0.77, 0.97)*
   1st quartile (< $ 33,000) 840 (24.57) 0.82(0.75, 0.91) 0.91 (0.79, 1.04)
Race at block group level (based on the largest proportion)    
   Caucasian, predominantly 2337 (68.35) Reference Reference
   African American, predominantly 997 (29.16) 0.87 (0.80, 0.95) 0.94 (0.84, 1.05)
   Other, predominantly 85 (2.49) 0.91 (0.73, 1.13) 0.96 (0.76, 1.22)
Area of residence at block group level (based on US Bureau of Census definition)    
   Rural, predominantly 27 (0.79) Reference Reference
   Urban-rural mixed 107 (3.13) 1.18 (1.30, 1.80) 1.13 (0.74, 1.74)
   Urban, predominantly 3285 (96.08) 1.15 (0.77, 1.74) 1.19 (0.79, 1.78)
  1. *Significant at 0.05 in the adjusted model; RR: rate ratios; CI: confidence interval.
  2. Final Poisson regression model was adjusted for median age, median income, education level, race, and area of residence at the block group level