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Table 3 Models using multiple built environment characteristics to predict walking for exercise

From: Using built environment characteristics to predict walking for exercise

Built Environment Characteristic Logistic model of walking or not Linear model of walking time
  Training set β estimate Validation set β estimate Training set β estimate Validation set β estimate
Density     
   log(thousands of residential units/km2) 0.25 -0.33 0.07 -0.13
Connectivity     
   log(mean block size in km2) 0.01 -0.04 0.04 0.03
Sidewalks     
   log(kilometers of sidewalk-lined streets) -0.08 0.16 0.06 -0.03
Destinations     
   Distance to closest bank     
< 500 m 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
500 to 1000 m 0.09 -0.49 -0.11 -0.01
> 1000 m 0.00 0.25 -0.12 0.13
   Distance to closest church     
< 500 m 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
500 to 1000 m -0.29 -0.56 0.03 0.17
> 1000 m -0.21 -0.49 0.04 0.06
   Distance to closest school     
< 500 m 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
500 to 1000 m -0.20 0.21 -0.22 -0.23
> 1000 m -0.16 0.27 -0.26 -0.22
   Distance to closest grocery store     
< 500 m 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
500 to 1000 m -0.05 0.11 0.14 0.37
> 1000 m -0.39 -0.07 0.06 0.20
   Distance to closest office     
< 500 m 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
500 to 1000 m 0.17 0.90 -0.02 0.18
> 1000 m 0.34 0.28 0.20 0.06
   Distance to closest retail shop     
< 500 m 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
500 to 1000 m -0.44 0.26 0.01 -0.46
> 1000 m -0.25 -0.13 -0.11 -0.04
   Distance to closest restaurant     
< 500 m 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
500 to 1000 m 0.42 -0.13 0.05 0.08
> 1000 m -0.01 0.26 0.07 -0.18
   Distance to closest gro-rest-ret complex     
< 500 m 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
500 to 1000 m -0.18 0.07 -0.13 -0.08
> 1000 m -0.34 -0.08 -0.03 -0.15
   Distance to closest office complex     
< 500 m 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
500 to 1000 m 0.14 -0.69 0.03 0.01
> 1000 m 0.25 -0.49 0.01 -0.11
   Distance to closest school-church combo     
< 500 m 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
500 to 1000 m 0.03 0.23 -0.01 0.16
> 1000 m 0.03 0.04 0.08 0.00
   Distance to closest fitness center     
< 500 m 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
500 to 1000 m -0.01 -0.10 -0.08 0.12
> 1000 m 0.03 0.10 -0.02 0.08
Park area     
   log(proportion of area covered by park) -0.04 0.12 0.06 0.11
  1. Notes: The outcomes were walking for exercise versus not walking for exercise and log(minutes per week walking for exercise); italics have been used for the validation set estimates to emphasize that these were post hoc and for comparison only; bold text has been used to indicate statistical significance (p < 0.05)