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Table 1 Frequency of outdoor falls with selected characteristics by gender and age groups

From: Spatial analysis of falls in an urban community of Hong Kong

Characteristic Frequency (%)
  Female Male TOTAL  
  20–44 45–64 > 64 Total 20–44 45–64 > 64 Total   
  (n = 14) (n = 48) (n = 146) (n = 208) (n = 6) (n = 10) (n = 57) (n = 73) (N = 281)  
Environmental Cause
Uneven floor 11 41 113 165 3 4 46 53 218 78
   curb 1 6 10 17 0 1 6 7 24 9
   Loose bricks 1 2 6 9 0 0 4 4 13 5
   Obstacle 2 4 16 22 0 0 5 5 27 10
   Steps 1 2 11 14 0 0 6 6 20 7
   Stairs 3 8 2 13 0 1 2 3 16 6
   Uneven pavement 3 19 68 90 3 2 23 28 118 42
Slippery/Wet Floor 6 17 66 89 3 2 23 28 117 42
Any of above 1 10 54 65 1 0 17 18 83 30
Uncertain 0 2 1 3 0 1 0 1 4 1
Activity during fall
Walking 10 39 109 158 4 6 41 51 209 74
Rushing 4 8 31 43 2 3 10 15 58 21
Morning Exercise 0 0 2 2 0 0 4 4 6 2
Alighting from bus 0 1 4 5 0 1 2 3 8 3
Specific Complaints
Insufficient Light 1 8 7 16 1 1 6 8 24 9
Avoid car hitting 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 2 1
Short signal timing for pedestrian crossings 0 0 2 2 0 0 2 2 4 1
Pushed by pedestrian 1 1 13 15 2 0 3 5 20 7
Hit by wheelbarrow 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 2 1
Time of fall
Midnight to 6 am 0 2 3 5 0 0 3 3 8 3
6 am to Noon 6 21 86 113 2 5 32 39 152 54
Noon to 6 pm 5 19 50 74 2 3 18 23 97 34
6 pm to Midnight 3 6 7 16 2 2 4 8 24 9
Weekend 2 11 55 68 2 1 18 21 89 32
Weekday 12 37 91 140 4 9 39 52 192 68
Raining 4 7 32 43 2 1 15 18 61 22
Clear 10 41 114 165 4 9 42 55 220 78
Footwear
Sandal 0 15 80 95 2 5 25 32 127 45
Sport Shoes 2 6 13 21 2 2 8 12 33 12
Proper Shoes 5 21 53 79 2 2 24 28 107 38
High Heels 7 5 0 12 0 0 0 0 12 4
others 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 2 1
Injury
Minor 14 38 86 138 5 7 40 52 190 68
Serious 0 10 59 69 0 3 16 19 88 31
*not sure 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 2 3 1
Hospitalization
Yes 0 5 31 36 0 1 10 11 47 17
No 14 43 115 172 6 9 47 62 234 83
Use of assistive device
Yes 0 3 55 58 0 0 23 23 81 29
No 14 45 91 150 6 10 34 50 200 71
Gait
Stable 12 38 65 115 6 7 21 34 149 53
Unstable 2 10 81 93 0 3 36 39 132 47
Vision
Clear 14 43 57 114 6 8 22 36 150 53
Unclear 0 5 89 94 0 2 35 37 131 47
Fall in most recent 5 years
Yes 2 6 80 88 0 5 37 42 130 46
No 12 42 64 120 6 5 20 31 151 54