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Table 8 Stratification on smoking. COPD diagnosis in relation to traffic among smokers/ex-smokers and non-smokers.

From: Traffic-related air pollution associated with prevalence of asthma and COPD/chronic bronchitis. A cross-sectional study in Southern Sweden

   Smokers/ex-smokers Non-smokers
   n COPD D OR a n COPD D OR a
Heavy traffic No 3149 167(5.3%) 1.00 2892 76(2.6%) 1.00
  Yes 1861 130(7.0%) 1.43(1.13–1.82) 1414 42(3.0%) 1.19(0.81–1.76)
Heaviest road within <100 m no heavy road 1951 104(5.3%) 1.00 1804 49(2.7%) 1.00
  <2 cars/min 1185 67(5.7%) 1.06(0.77–1.45) 1050 28(2.7%) 0.99(0.62–1.59)
  2–5 cars/min 992 52(5.2%) 0.99(0.70–1.40) 828 19(2.3%) 0.88(0.51–1.51)
  6–10 cars/min 522 44(8.4%) 1.56(1.08–2.26) 364 16(4.4%) 1.64(0.92–2.94)
  >10 cars/min 344 28(8.1%) 1.84(1.18–2.86) 234 6(2.6%) 1.15(0.48–2.75)
NOx (μg/m3) 0–8 969 47(4.9%) 1.00 886 27(3.0%) 1.00
  8–11 971 47(4.8%) 0.96(0.63–1.46) 884 21(2.4%) 0.77(0.43–1.37)
  11–14 945 63(6.7%) 1.35(0.92–2.00) 910 24(2.6%) 0.92(0.52–1.61)
  14–19 1037 60(5.8%) 1.14(0.92–2.00) 821 23(2.8%) 0.85(0.48–1.50)
  >19 1072 78(7.3%) 1.61(1.11–2.35) 779 23(3.0%) 1.12(0.63–1.98)
Test för Heavy traffic*eversmoker p = 0.47    
Interaction Heaviestroad100 m*eversmoker p = 0.89    
  NOx*eversmoker p = 0.83    
  1. a Adjusted for age and sex. [OR(95%CI)].