Spatially stratified tests of ENM predictions of HP-H5N1 distributions in the Middle East and northeastern Africa. Here, occurrences from each subregion predict distributions of cases in the rest of the region, and vice versa. Model predictions are shown as ramps of model agreement in predictions: light grey = 5–9 models predict potential presence, dark grey = all models agree in predicting potential presence. Only independent test points are plotted on maps. The dense cluster of testing points along the lower Nile River in northeastern Africa as testing region analyses covers an area predicted to be suitable.