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Table 1 Prevalence odds ratio for congenital anomalies associated with maternal exposure to the emissions of the incinerator plant of Reggio Emilia, northern Italy, 1998–2006

From: Risk of congenital anomalies around a municipal solid waste incinerator: a GIS-based case-control study

Area Cases % (n) Controls % (n) Odds ratio1
All anomalies    
A (low exposure) 89.0 (203) 90.4 (206) 1.00 (referent)
B (medium exposure) 7.9 (18) 5.3 (12) 1.49 (0.70–3.19)
C (high exposure) 3.1 (7) 4.3 (10) 0.66 (0.25–1.79)
    P trend 0.881
Overall exposed area (B+C) 11.0 (25) 9.6 (22) 1.11 (0.60–2,04)
Cardiovascular system
A (low exposure) 9.6 (87) 90.4 (206) 1.00 (referent)
B (medium exposure) 6.3 (6) 5.3 (12) 0.91 (0.36–2.31)
C (high exposure) 3.1 (3) 4.3 (10) 0.77 (0.22–2.77)
    P trend 0.666
Overall exposed area (B+C) 9.4 (9) 9.6 (22) 0.86 (0.40–1.86)
Nervous system
A (low exposure) 95.7 (22) 90.4 (206) 1.00 (referent)
B (medium exposure) 4.3 (1) 5.3 (12) 0.64 (0.83–4.93)
C (high exposure) 0.0 (0) 4.3 (10) -2
    P trend 0.344
Overall exposed area (B+C) 4.3 (1) 9.6 (22) 0.41 (0.05–3.17)
Chromosomal
A (low exposure) 85.4 (35) 90.4 (206) 1.00 (referent)
B (medium exposure) 12.2 (5) 5.3 (12) 2.53 (0.88–7.24)
C (high exposure) 2.4 (1) 4.3 (10) 0.77 (0.10–6.14)
    P trend 0.486
Overall exposed area (B+C) 14.6 (6) 9.6 (22) 1.82 (0.70–4.72)
Genito-urinary
A (low exposure) 90.4 (19) 90.4 (206) 1.00 (referent)
B (medium exposure) 4.8 (1) 5.3 (12) 0.65 (0.08–5.05)
C (high exposure) 4.8 (1) 4.3 (10) 1.08 (0.14–8.68)
    P trend 0.904
Overall exposed area (B+C) 9.6 (2) 9.6 (22) 0.82 (0.18–3.67)
Musculoskeletal
A (low exposure) 87.2 (34) 90.4 (206) 1.00 (referent)
B (medium exposure) 10.3 (4) 5.3 (12) 1.52 (0.49–4.67)
C (high exposure) 2.5 (1) 4.3 (10) 0.56 (0.07–4.47)
    P trend 0.928
Overall exposed area (B+C) 12.8 (5) 9.6 (22) 1.13 (0.41–3.10)
Clefts2,3
A (low exposure) 100.0 (4) 90.4 (206) 1.00 (referent)
Overall exposed area (B+C) 0.0 (0) 9.6 (22) -
Eye2
A (low exposure) 85.7 (6) 90.4 (206) 1.00 (referent)
Overall exposed area (B+C) 14.3 (1) 9.6 (22) 1.78 (0.20–5.65)
Other and unspecified congenital anomalies2
A (low exposure) 87.5 (14) 90.4 (206) 1.00 (referent)
Overall exposed area (B+C) 12.5 (2) 9.6 (22) 1.11 (0.24–5.10)
  1. 1 Estimates computed through unconditional logistic regression (95% confidence interval in parentheses)
  2. 2 No point estimate could be computed for the B and C areas
  3. 3 No point estimate could be computed for the overall exposed area